GRAVES/GREAVES DNA SURNAME STUDY RESULTS

In addition to the discussion and analysis of the DNA test results presented below, see also the chart presentation of the possible ancestral connections of the various families. Up-to-date charts for most of the families that have participated in the DNA study can also be accessed by clicking on the links in the Genealogy column of the master DNA results table (below).

INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND

These are the results for the first 307 samples tested by Family Tree DNA. The study was started in July 2001, and the first group of 44 test results was received on Nov. 17, 2001. The results have been divided into groups that may or may not correspond to the families determined by conventional genealogical research. The groups are identified by various colors. A set of test results has been included as part of a group if there is no more than one change (mutation) in the first 12 markers (alleles) from the central value of the group. (There are several exceptions to that rule, where results that differ by 2 mutations have been put in a group. For a review of the rules for counting differences between DNA test results, see Guidelines for Counting Mismatches.) The test results that differ from the results of the rest of the group are shown in the following table as uncolored cells. The rows with no colors could not easily be assigned to one of the colored groups. Comments and analyses by anyone are welcomed. Further explanations, details, analyses, and conclusions will be added in the future. We may find as we get more results from some of the large families with good traditional documentation, that some participants with more mutations from the group norm may still be part of the family, possibly resulting in combining groups that now seem to be separate.

In December 2003, the haplogroup was added for each test result (as the last column in the following table). The table was then rearranged to keep all samples within the same haplogroup together. Each specific set of test results is called a haplotype. Each haplotype is part of a larger grouping called a haplogroup. A person is more closely related to another person in the same haplogroup than to people in a different haplogroup. To see how these haplogroups are related to each other, look at the diagram on the Family Tree DNA website. In the following table, haplogroups in black have been predicted by Family Tree DNA based on unambiguous results, and those in red have been confirmed by SNP testing (when there is a background color for the row, the haplogroup cell has been made uncolored so that it will stand out).

By June 2004, we started receiving results for markers 26-37, so the master results table below was expanded to allow display of those results. It was expected that these additional markers would allow some of the identical 25-marker matches to be differentiated.

In April 2006, the number of markers tested increased to 59 and then to 67, so the table was expanded to allow for that. The first 67-marker results were received in June 2006.

Comments on test results that aren't in one of the colored blocks: All y-DNA test results are part of some Graves/Greaves family. If the participant is part of a known family, then the point at which the haplotype changed is considered to be the start of a new haplotype within that family. (This situation is sometimes caused by error in traditional research, and the descendant actually belongs in a different lineage. Other times it is because of a "non-paternal event" such as adoption, name change, etc.) If the test results cannot be matched with those of any other participant, it may just be because not enough people have been tested. As matches are made in the future, new groups will probably be established.

Comments on the table: For the column headings that are marker names, the markers in red have shown a faster mutation rate than the average. Therefore, these markers may be more helpful at splitting family lineages into subsets or branches

The surname in the following table is that of the participant. The ancestors of that person may have used a different spelling. For instance, in the U.S. many early settlers changed the spelling of their name from Greaves or Grave to Graves. Examples of this are for genealogies 28 and 270 where present-day descendants in the U.S. use the Graves spelling, but the spelling in England was Greaves. Genealogy 247 is another example of the same thing, where ancestors in England and first settlers in America used the Greaves spelling, but most descendants used the Graves spelling. Another example is genealogy 85, where the early spelling was without the final "s" and took several forms, including Grave and Greave.

 

Locus

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

55

56

57

58

59

60

61

62

63

64

65

66

67

 

ID#

Surname

& DYS #





3

9

3





3

9

0






1

9





3

9

1




3 8

5

a




3 8

5

b





4 2

6





3

8

8





4 3

9




3 8

9

i





3

9

2




3 8

9

ii





4

5

8




4

5

9

a




4

5

9

b





4

5

4





4

5

5





4

4

7





4

3

7





4

4

8





4

4

9




4

6

4

a




4

6

4

b




4

6

4

c




4

6

4

d





4
6
0

G
A
T
A

H
4

Y
C
A
I
I

a

Y
C
A
I
I

b





4
5
6





6
0
7





5
7
6





5
7
0



C
D
Y

a



C
D
Y

b





4
4
2





4
3
8





5
3
1





5
7
8


3
9
5
S
1
a


3
9
5
S
1
b





5
9
0





5
3
7





6
4
1





4
7
2



4
0
6
S
1





5
1
1





4
2
5




4
1
3
a




4
1
3
b





5
5
7





5
9
4





4
3
6





4
9
0





5
3
4





4
5
0





4
4
4





4
8
1





5
2
0





4
4
6





6
1
7





5
6
8





4
8
7





5
7
2





6
4
0





4
9
2





5
6
5

Gene-

alogy

Haplo-
group

32262

Graves

15

22

15

10

17

18

11

12

12

14

11

31

  ??

E1b1a

N19423

Graves

13

21

15

10

15

16

11

12

11

13

11

30

 218

E1b1a

129642

Graves

13

21

15

10

15

16

11

12

11

13

11

30

 218

E1b1a

32505

Graves

14

21

16

10

16

17

11

12

12

13

11

32

 789

E1b1a

14379

Graves

13

24

13

10

16

17

11

12

13

14

11

31

15

9

9

11

11

28

14

20

33

14

16

17

17

 366

E1b1b1a

2408

Graves

13

24

13

10

15

18

11

12

12

13

11

30

  68

E1b1b1a2

28522

Graves

13

22

14

10

13

13

11

14

12

12

11

29

15

8

9

8

11

22

16

20

25

12

14

15

15

 624

I1

23421

Graves

13

22

14

10

13

14

11

14

11

12

11

28

14

8

9

8

11

24

16

20

30

12

15

16

16

  59

I1

95947

Graves

13

22

14

10

14

14

11

14

11

12

11

28

16

8

9

8

11

23

15

20

28

12

14

15

16

11

10

19

21

15

13

17

21

36

36

12

10

  ??

I1

112144

Graves

14

22

14

10

13

13

11

14

11

12

11

28

15

8

9

8

11

22

16

20

28

12

14

15

16

10

10

19

21

14

14

16

19

35

36

12

10

 287

I1

127890

Graves

14

22

14

11

13

14

11

14

11

12

11

28

16

8

9

8

11

22

16

19

28

14

14

14

15

 558

I1

93203

Greaves

13

22

15

10

14

15

11

14

11

12

11

30

15

8

9

8

11

22

16

20

29

12

14

16

17

10

10

19

21

14

13

18

19

36

37

12

10

 745

I1

107256

Greaves

13

22

14

10

13

15

11

14

11

12

11

28

17

8

9

8

12

23

16

20

31

12

14

15

16

11

10

19

21

15

14

15

19

35

38

13

10

11

8

15

15

8

11

10

8

9

9

12

22

25

17

10

12

12

16

8

13

25

20

13

13

11

13

11

11

12

11

 185

I1

1447

Graves

13

22

14

11

13

13

11

15

11

12

11

30

15

8

9

8

11

24

16

19

29

12

14

15

16

10

10

19

21

15

14

16

21

33

36

12

10

11

8

15

15

8

11

10

8

9

8

12

22

25

15

11

12

12

15

8

13

25

20

13

13

11

12

11

11

12

11

  85

I1

1358

Greaves

13

23

14

10

14

14

11

12

11

12

11

28

15

8

9

8

11

23

16

20

28

12

14

15

16

 592

I1

131472

Greaves

13

23

14

10

14

14

11

12

11

12

11

28

15

8

9

8

11

23

16

20

28

12

14

15

16

11

10

19

21

14

14

17

21

36

38

13

10

 592

I1

21628

Graves

13

23

15

10

12

12

11

15

12

14

11

30

16

7

8

11

11

25

15

21

30

11

14

14

15

10

11

11

21

14

12

16

18

33

33

12

10

 916

I1

1952

Graves

13

23

14

10

14

15

11

14

12

12

11

28

14

8

9

8

11

23

16

20

29

12

14

14

15

  85

I1

3700

Graves