John Graves of Northamptonshire, Revisted
By Robert L. Atteberry and Carmen J. Rosado
Last updated February 2011
All copyright retained by the authors
This article on the ancestry of "John Graves of Northamptonshire" has been prepared as an adjunct to the authors' investigation of their own ancestor, Richard Bostick (b. 14Sep1758 Onslow Co. NC, d. 5Feb1831 Beaufort Dist. SC). Through the authors' research it has been established that Richard Bostick was a son of Valentine Bostick and Mary Graves. Through the further research of these authors it has been established that Mary Graves was very likely an older daughter of Thomas Graves2, son of John Graves1 of Stratton Marjor Parish, King and Queen County, Virginia. This research into the possible ancestry of John Graves1 was performed for the purpose of further strengthening the connection between Mary Graves, wife of Valentine Bostick, as a daughter of Thomas Graves2, and to try to establish the origins of Mary's grandfather, John Graves1. Buried within this article on John Graves1, the reader will find numerous references to associations with the Davenport, Arnold and Bostick families. This has occurred because the primary audience of this research was intended to be persons with specific interest in Bostick genealogy. However, it occurred to the authors that persons interested in Graves family genealogy may also derive value from this work. Consequently, it is being offered to the Graves Family Association for publication for its own readers.
Valentine Bostick’s father-in-law is believed to have been Thomas Graves. The assumed kinship between Valentine Bostick and Thomas Graves is predicated on a deed recorded in Orange County, Virginia on 18Jul1744 in which Charles Powell conveyed land to Thomas Graves, and which showed Valentine Bostick as surety and stated that “Baustic [sic] was son of Graves” . This chapter endeavors to discover the ancestry of Thomas Graves, father-in-law of Valentine Bostick. Let it be said at the outset that there has been a great deal of writing published by various and sundry researchers on the many branches of the Graves family in colonial Virginia, the most noteworthy of which was Mrs. P. W. Hiden. A large part of those writings profer the notion that all of the Graves families of colonial Virginia originated from a single progenitor, Captain Thomas Graves, who died at Accomack between Nov1635 and Jan1636.
Perhaps the most exhaustive research compiled on the possible descendants of Captain Thomas Graves is found on the Internet at “Graves Family Association”, hereinafter, GFA. The GFA site has utilized DNA testing in an effort to sort out the possible kinship of descendants of the several Graves families originating from colonial Virginia. The present results of the GFA DNA project has determined that most of the strands previously attributed to Captain Thomas Graves are in fact of other ancestral origins. However, the GFA site has compiled genealogies for most of these disparate strands, and wherever possible, has made links to other Graves immigrants, or to Graves/Greaves families in England.
A perusal of the various Graves family strands existing in colonial Virginia during the 17th and 18th centuries provides only one likely match for Valentine Bostick’s father-in-law, that being Thomas Graves, son of John Graves of Northamptonshire as described in Genealogy No. 270 on the GFA website. The following is an excerpt from Genealogy No. 270, which provides documentation for placing John Graves in King William and King and Queen Counties as early as 1704 when he was identified as being of King and Queen County and purchasing land in King William County:
“John Graves(1) was born about 1665 and died after 1737. His wife's name is not known. It is believed that he was an immigrant to Virginia from Northamptonshire, England (based on DNA testing, and the Bible record of Solomon Graves in the Appendix), and his surname may have been spelled Greaves in England (since all other proven relatives of his in England spelled their name as Greaves). It was previously thought that this John was a son of Thomas and Elizabeth Graves (descended from Capt. Thomas Graves of VA, genealogy 169), since the ages were right, and there were no other known Graves of the right age to be the father of this John. He is obviously too old to be one of the Johns of the Abingdon Parish Register [Gloucester County]. Francis (genealogy 220, previously thought to be youngest son of Capt. Thomas Graves of gen. 169) may possibly have had a son John by a first marriage, but this John died in Essex Co. in 1720. He was also in Essex Co. at the same time that John Sr. (#1) was in King and Queen and King William Counties. Two John Graves are in the 1704 Quit Rent Rolls, one in King and Queen Co. and one in King William Co. The one in King and Queen Co. might be the John bapt. 1677, Abingdon Parish, but it is also quite possible that both Johns are one and the same person. As deeds show, John Sr. (#1) was of King and Queen Co. in 1704 when he purchased land in King William Co. Therefore, it is quite possible that he is listed for both areas. The Quit Rent Rolls are obviously incomplete, as only seven Graves appear on them: Thomas and John in King William Co., John and Robert in King and Queen Co., Thomas and Jeffery of Gloucester Co., and James of James City Co. There should be many more.
There are several deeds that are crucial to establishing this line. They substantiate the birth dates of John Sr. (#1) and his son John Jr., and show that this is the same family that later settled in Spotsylvania Co. King William Co., Deed Book 1, pp. 195-7: John Clayton (or Clayborne) of St. John's Parish, King William Co., sells 100 acres on the north side of the Pamunkey River to John Graves of Stratton Major (Manor) Parish, King and Queen Co., 6 May 1704.
King William Co., Deed Book 1, p. 342: John Graves assigns over all rights, etc., to the above 100 acres on the Pamunkey to his son John, 20 March 1706/7.
Spotsylvania Co. Deed Book A, May 24, 1729. Thomas Gambrill of St. Margaret's Parish, King William Co. In consideration of 100 acres of land, a tract of land containing 200 acres in Spotsylvania Co. (one of the witnesses to this deed was Thomas Graves).
This deed does not describe the bounds of the 100 acres which John Jr. traded off in King William Co., but inasmuch as he was described as being of King and Queen and owning 100 acres in King William, it must be the same 100 acres assigned to him as a Deed of Gift by his father John Graves Sr. There are no other records showing the disposal of the 100 acres or of any other John Graves owning 100 acres in this section.
Spotsylvania Co. Deed Book F, p. 563, May 31, 1765. John and Frances Graves made a Deed of Gift to their son, Joseph Graves, specifically mentioning the 200 acres content and that it was purchased by them in 1729 from Thomas Gambrill.
Journal of the House of Burgess, 1717-1726, p. 56: William Smith of King William Co. petitions for a bill to make good the title on entailed land he sold to John Graves Jr., 16 Nov. 1713.
It is obvious John Graves Jr. was of age by 1713 and most likely either of age or very close in 1706/7 when given the land on Pamunkey by his father. Therefore, John Jr. was probably born 1685-90 and was the oldest of John Sr.'s known sons. By this same reasoning, John Sr. must have been born by 1670 and more likely by 1665.
Although there is no record of John Sr. moving to Spotsylvania Co., Va., it is likely that he moved with his sons. In Spotsylvania Co. Order Book, 1735-38, p. 501, 7 June 1737, John Graves is set free of any county levies, he being very ancient and unable to labor. There is no other John in the area to who this description would apply. It is also more appropriate for a man born 1665 than the John who was probably baptized 1677. John Graves Sr. died sometime after 1737.
Thomas Graves, in his will of 1768, specifically mentions Joseph Graves (son of John Graves, Jr. of Spotsylvania Co.) as his nephew and makes him executor of his will. This proves beyond contention that John Graves, Jr. and Thomas Graves, both of Spotsylvania Co., were brothers and the sons of John Graves Sr. of King and Queen Co.
The evidence for Joseph Graves as a son is discussed in the section on Joseph and his family.
Miss Louise Graves, in her book referenced at the end of this paragraph, has an excellent discussion of the ancestry of this John Graves. On pages 47-50 of her book, she points out the errors in the lineage of this line in the publications of Mrs. Hiden and John Card Graves. She quotes Mr. John Frederick Dorman as stating, "The John Graves of King and Queen Co. who deeded 100 acres in King William Co. to his son is the only logical John Graves to be the father of Thomas and John Jr.... The deed of 1706/7 appears to be an adult John Jr., and if that is so we must put his birth as ca. 1685 and the father's birth back before 1665. This would make the father a contemporary of John Graves of St. Ann's Parish, Essex Co. (will 1719-20) who was of age when he purchased 200 acres there. Neither of these John Graves is identified in Adventurers of Purse and Person although they fall within the generations covered in that book. They must be either sons of Thomas Graves, Jr., or Francis Graves, or grandsons of John Graves, the eldest son of old Captain Thomas."
We now know (as a result of DNA testing) that this John Graves was not descended from Capt. Thomas Graves of VA. That conclusion is also supported by the Bible record of Solomon Graves in the Appendix to this genealogy. (R‑14, R‑901)
Children - Graves
+2. John Graves, Jr., b.c. 1685, m. Frances ‑‑‑‑‑‑, c. 1715, d. after 1772.
+3. Thomas Graves, b. 1691, m(1) Mary Perkins, m(2) Ann Davenport, d. 1768.
+4. Joseph Graves, b.c. 1715, m. Sarah ‑‑‑‑‑‑, d. 1774.”
From the foregoing excerpt, it has been documented that John Graves of King and Queen County and later of Spotsylvania County was born about 1665; had three sons: John Jr., Thomas and Joseph [although Joseph's connection is in dispute]; that through DNA testing he has been linked to a family named Greaves of Northamptonshire, England; and that he died in Spotsylvania County sometime after 1737.
It is John Graves Sr.’s son, Thomas, whom the authors believe to have been Valentine Bostick’s father-in-law. Again, the following excerpt from Genealogy No. 270 provides a biographical sketch of Thomas Graves:
“Thomas Graves (3) was born in 1691 (based on a deposition, Caroline O.B. 1746-54, p. 362), and died in 1768 in Spotsylvania Co., Va. Mrs. Hiden states: "in the absence of documentary proof, we can still feel confident that Thomas Graves was the son of a John Graves who had lived in King and Queen Co. but was of the Gloucester Co. family, born about 1670, son of Thomas and Mary Graves, son of Thomas, son of Capt. Thomas."
Thomas Graves consistently maintained his residence on the Pamunkey in Spotsylvania Co., Va. His wife Ann (or Anne or Sarah Ann) has generally been thought to be a Davenport, daughter of William Davenport and Anne Woodruff, but Mrs. Hiden thought she was more likely a Clark, or of that family connection. Mrs. Taylor says she was born before 1696. She lived until 1782, and during the Revolution she furnished supplies to the Continental troops.
It now appears that the wife of Thomas Graves was definitely Ann Davenport, and that she was a daughter of Davis Davenport of Pamunkey Neck, Virginia. For further information, see the website at http://www.pamunkeydavenport.com.
It appears that Thomas Graves first married Mary Perkins by 1715, and had by this marriage only three children, two daughters and one son. His wife then died and he remarried by no later than 1721. The son was John Graves and one of the daughters was Eleanor Graves, based on Thomas Kimbrough’s will dated 20 Sept. 1777 in Caswell Co., NC. The source for the former statement is a record from the Bible of Solomon Graves, son of Rev. Barzillai Graves (who died 1827). A copy of the Bible record was made by the NC Archives in 1971. A detailed discussion of this is in the Appendix of this book. A discussion of the research for determining the ancestry of Thomas and his brothers is also in the Appendix, but it has now been determined that the conclusions were wrong, since all researchers had made the incorrect assumption that this family was descended from Capt. Thomas Graves (genealogy 169).
The will of Thomas Graves (Spotsylvania Co. Rec. Will Book D, p. 318) was dated 17 Oct. 1767, probated 6 June 1768, but final settlement was not until July 1802. Thomas is credited with a total of 16 children. However, the estate settlement plainly states there were only 15 legatees. There were probably other children who died before reaching adulthood. There is some question about some of the following children, and additional proof is needed. Mrs. Ethel Taylor suggests that there may also have been another child named Sarah.
Children - Graves, by Mary Perkins
+12. Eleanor Graves, b. probably by 1712, m. Thomas Kimbrough, d. aft. Sept. 1781.
+13. John Graves, b.c. 1715, m(1) ‑‑‑‑‑‑ Herndon, m(2) Isabella Lea, c. 1752, d. 18 Jan. 1792.
NOTE: The authors believe that the third child of Mary Perkins and Thomas Graves was, in fact, Mary Graves, wife of Valentine Bostick, probably born around 1716-20.
Children - Graves, by Ann Davenport
+14. Thomas Graves, b. by 1721, m. Isabella Susan Bartlett, by 1751, d. 18 Nov. 1801.
+15. Solomon Graves, b. by 1723, m. Sarah Winfield, c. 1746, d.c. 1785.
+16. William Graves, b. 1720-30, m. Mary ‑‑‑‑‑‑, d.c. 1791.
+17. Richard Graves, b.c. 1725, m. Lucy Davenport, 1750, d. after 1788.
+18. Susanna Graves, b. by 1740, m. William Pettus, 1759, d. by 1802.
+19. Rice Graves, b.c. 1729, m. Jane Young, 1751-2, d. 1814.
+20. David Graves, b.c. 1730, m. Agnes Holloway, d. Jan. (or Feb.) 1808.
+21. Nancy Graves, b.c. 1735, m. William Lea, d. by 1809.
+22. Rosanna Graves, m. John Spencer.
+23. Louisa Graves, m. Thomas Pulliam. He was son of Thomas Pulliam Sr. who died testate, Spots. Co., 1758.
+24. Robert Graves, b.c. 1735-40, m. Jean ‑‑‑‑‑‑.
+25. Jonathan Graves, married, d. by 1768. He probably married a Davenport, since a William Davenport was made guardian of his son William.
+26. Mary Graves, m. ‑‑‑‑‑‑ Campbell (?). John Bostick signed receipts for her in all disbursements from her father's estate.”
On 6May1704 John Claybourne of St. Johns Parish, King William County sells to John Graves Sr.1 of Stratton Major Parish, King and Queen County for 3500 lbs Tobacco 100 acres on north side of Pamunkey River in King William County, adjacent to a place called White Oake Landing and a corner Hickory standing near Robert Cocke’s plantation. Wit: Francis Griggs, Edward Guthrie and Henry Collison. Recorded 1Jun1704. The precise location and origin of this 100 acre tract is unknown, but given that John Claibourne was the previous owner, it very likely was situated in the vicinity of Cohoke at the location shown on Figure 4A-1. Although no geographic feature could be located with the name of White Oak Landing, there is a location identified as White Landing on current USGS topographic maps at the general location shown on Figure 4A-2. A rectangle approximating an area of 500 acres has been overlayed on the topographic map immediately downstream from White Landing to suggest the possible location of the two tracts purchased by John Graves from John Claibourne. Sweet Hall shown on the topographic map was the ancestral home of Thomas Claibourne, son of Colonel William Claibourne.
John Claibourne was the eldest son of John Claibourne Sr. and Jane [lnu] probably born at or near his grandfather’s plantation of Romancoke in the lower Pamunkey Neck in about 1665. John’s father, John Claibourne Sr. was born probably near Great Wicomoco in Northumberland County or at Kecoughtan in Elizabeth City County in about 1641, being the eldest son of William Claibourne and Elizabeth Butler. On 10Nov1676 Colonel William Claibourne “gift” deeded the “Cohoke Tract” to his eldest son, John Claibourne Sr. Presumably that tract passed to John Jr. at his father’s death in about 1690.
On 24Dec1657 Colonel William Claiborne received a patent for three several parcels of marsh and sunken land on north side of York River [aka Pamunkey], containing 1600 acres, adjacent his plantation and divident of Ramongack. 600 acres at lower end of said divident lying above Colonel West’, adjacent south on neck where William Hodgson now lives and bounded by the River and lands of John Austin, Francis Burnell and William Blackey; the second parcel is all the marsh called Tococomans, containing 500 acres, over against land lately George Lydall’s; and 500 acres called Cohoke, for the transport of 32 persons. It was a portion of these patented lands which Col. Claibourne gifted to his son, John Claibourne Sr. Whether this gift deed included the entire 1600 acres or only a portion thereof is unknown. However, it is presumed to have included at least 600 acres, as there is record of John Claibourne Jr. having sold three separate parcels between 1704 and 1706 consisting of 600 acres: (1) 100 acres to Richard Littlepage in 1704, (2) 100 acres to John Graves in 1704, and (3) 400 acres to John Graves in 1706.
On 23Jan1705/6 John Claybourne planter of St. Johns Parish King William County sells to John Graves of Stratton Major Parish King and Queen County, for 1000 lbs tobacco 400 acres of marsh land “known by the name of Cohoke Sunken Ground”, in St. Johns Parish, King William County. Wit: John Graves Jr., John Holloway and Robert Napier. Rec. 20May1706. Because of the description of this tract being within the “Cohoke Sunken Ground”, it was unquestionably part of the lands acquired by Col. William Claibourne in 1657 and later deeded to his son John Claibourne Sr. in 1676. It is probable that this tract abutted the 100 acres purchased by John Graves Sr. in 1704, the combination of which probably comprised the 500 acres “called Cohoke” patented by Col. William Claibourne on 24Dec1657. The fact that John Graves Jr. was witness to this purchase by his father, and that both purchases (1704 and 1706) were from John Claibourne, the John Graves of the two tracts north of the Pamunkey were unquestionably the same person, namely John Graves Sr.1. With John Graves Jr. having been a witness to this deed suggests that he had reached his majority before 23Jan1706 making his birth sometime before Jan1685.
To better understand the context of the foregoing transactions involving John Graves Sr.1 and John Claybourne, it is helful to know some of the history of the Claibourne family in colonial Virginia. The progenator of this family was William Claibourne for whom the following extract provides a brief biographical sketch:
William Claibourne was baptised 10Aug1600, second son of Thomas Claibourne and Sarah (Smith) James of Crayford Parish, Kent County, England; matriculated to Pembroke College, Cambridge on 31May1617; selected on 13Jun1621 by the Virginia Company as the Surveyor of the Colony; arrived at Jamestown in Fall 1621 aboard the George along with Governor, Sir Francis Wyatt; appointed to the General Council on 30Mar1623, reappointed by King on 26Aug1624; served as Secretary of Colony, 1625-35 and 1652-60; and Treasurer, 1642-1660. As the colonial surveyor for Virginia, William Claibourne’s name appears on many of the early maps and land records in and around Jamestown. By 1630 he had received several patents in James City, Warwick and Elizabeth City Counties. On 16May1631 he and associates [Clobery and Company, London] received a license from King Charles I for trade of corn, furs or any other commodities in all parts of the Americas not already covered by previous patents of sole proprietorship. In 1632 Claibourne settled on Kent Island, located in upper Chesapeake Bay opposite present day Annapolis, which he purchased from the Susquahannah Indians. Following a long and acrimonious dispute with Lord Baltimore and the Calvert settlers of Maryland, extending through the Cromwellian period of English revolt, Claibourne lost his battle to retain Kent Island as part of Virginia in 1657.
He was a colonel, commanding all colonial forces in the campaign against the Indians in 1644-45 during which he established an encampment near Cohoke, on the Pamunkey Neck at the site where he later filed a patent for 5000 acres. By 1651 William Claibourne had already turned his interests away from Kent Island when he patented 5000 acres in Northumberland County near the Great Wicomoco River and another 5000 acres on the Pamunkey Neck abutting the lands of Governor John West in 1653. He continued to add to his holdings on the Pamunkey, including the 1600 acres of low land acquired on 24Dec1657. From about 1655 until his death in about 1679 William made his home on his plantation on the Pamunkey, to which he gave the name Romancoke. Refer to Figure 4A-1 for the approximate location of Romancoke Plantation.
It is worth reporting that before his settlement on Kent Island in the Chesapeake estuary he and his brother-in-law, Thomas Butler, resided for a few years in Accomack County on the eastern shore. The following petitions from the Accomack Court records are offered for the reader’s enlightenment and amusement:
The reference to “cowpen” is believed to have been for Cowpen Creek situated in Accomack. It is interesting to note that Joan’s punishment was to be meted out by her confessing her wrongdoing before the congregation across the shore at King’s Creek, also in Accomack.
It may well have been as Beverley Fleet would have us believe, that these accusations back and forth between these parties was nothing more than words. Regardless, it certainly seems to bespeak some very deep seated dislike between the Edwards and Butlers.
It has been reported that William Claibourne was appointed a Justice and Quorum member at Accomack in February 1631/2, and a Justice across the River at York in 1633. This record would suggest that William Claibourne continued as a member of the Accomack Quorum in Oct1634, when he served along side Captain Thomas Graves, etal.
Examination of other grants to Thomas Harwood showed his location to be in Charles River County (later York County), so it is possible that the Joane Butler claimed as a headright in this patent may have been the wife of Thomas Butler.
It should be noted that the Joan and Thomas Butler referenced in the foregoing Court petitions were the brother and sister-in-law of William Claibourne’s wife, Elizabeth Butler. Thomas Butler was reported several times in Colonel Claibourne’s accounts to Clobery and Company in the mid-1630’s as a mariner and captain of a pinnace. They are reported to have returned to England sometime after 1638 where they are believed to have remained. Their sons are recorded immigrating to Westmoreland County on the south side of the Potomac River in 1650. . It should also be noted that William Claibourne and Captain Thomas Graves both served on the Accomack County Court during the same time period in the 1630’s. Following his brief appearance in Accomack in 1630’s Colonel Claibourne appeared in numerous colonial records, some of which are presented hereinafter:
It is interesting to note that William Claibourne appears to be out of the area of Gloucester County, perhaps even out of the Colony in 1648. It is known that he returned to England at various times during his disputes with Lord Baltimore to defend himself or plead his case before the Court. This may have been one of those occasions. It would appear that he had left his daughters, Mary and Jane (and perhaps his wife) in the Colony and in the care of his cousin, Samuel Smith. The Power of Attorney appears to grant Smith authority to reclaim Colonel Claibourne’s assets at various locations along Chesapeake Bay, perhaps including Kent Island.
These Butler men are believed to have been the sons of Thomas Butler and Joan Christopher, the in-laws of Colonel William Claibourne and his wife, Elizabeth Butler. It is reported that Thomas Butler had returned to England sometime around 1640, presumably taking his family with him. The location of this tract is described as being at the “head of Canawoman Creek”, yet no such place name could be found on maps. Further research into the location of Hollowes’ holdings in Westmoreland showed his main presence to be at “Nomany”. Nomany actually refers to Nomini Bay area which is situated along the south side of the Potomac River in a relatively rural area at the eastern terminus of State Route 622. Flowing into Nomini Bay is a strean called Currioman Creek, which may very well have been the stream identified in this patent as “Canawoman” Creek. Later records suggest that these Butler men established long-term residency along the south side of the Potomac River. For example, Thomas Butler Jr. married Jane Baldridge, daughter of James and Dorothy Baldridge, former Marylanders who settled on the Northern Neck of Virginia in the mid-1640’s.
The Jo[hn] Hallowes recorded in this deposition is believed to have been the same John Hollowes, who was granted 1600 acres in Northumberland County (later Westmoreland County) on 30Sep1650 for the transport of the Butler brothers, etal. The fact that this event occurred at Colonel Claybournes suggests that Col. William Claybourne had an established residence in Northumberland County before he began procuring his lands on the Pamunkey Neck. This connection between John Hollowes and Colonel Clairbourne in Northumberland further supports the notion that these Butler men were in fact William Claibourne’s nephews. There is documentary evidence which suggests that Col. William Claibourne established his residency in the Wicomoco River area of Northumberland County as early as 1642, following his explusion from Kent Island and being summond to England by Lord Baltimore.
This patent is believed to have been in the same vicinity as earlier residency established by Colonel Claibourne in Northumberland County. Col. Claibourne transferred a large part of this patent to his daughter and son-in-law, Jane and Thomas Brereton.
This was the first of several large land acquisitions by Col. William Claibourne situated on the Pamunkey Neck. It is possible that the transportees, John Butler and Phillip West were kinsmen of William Claibourne and John West Jr.
There was a John Butler, who received a patent for 470 acres in York County [later New Kent County] on Pamunkey Neck adjacent to the lands of William Claibourne, Joseph Croshaw and John West described hereinbelow. He may have been the same John Bulter used as a headright by Col. Claibourne in Item No. 12, above. The authors have not been able to establish the ancestry of this John Butler with any degree of certainty, but it is possible that he was descended from Elizabeth Butler’s family, possibly the son of Thomas and Joan Butler, who immigrated to Westmoreland County before 1650.
Whatever the identity of this John Butler, it is fairly certain that he was not Col. Claibourne’s brother-in-law. That John Butler performed great service to William Claibourne during his settlement on Kent Island as a Lieutenant under the command of Captain Thomas Smith. Both Captain Smith and John Butler had warrants issued for their arrest in 1637 under direction from Governor Calvert and the newly formed Maryland Council. They were arrested and taken prisoner on Kent Island in the summer of 1637 and returned to St. Mary’s City to stand trial. Captain Smith was convicted of treason and hanged by the neck. John Bulter seems to have avoided a similar fate by swearing allegiance to Lord Baltimore. As a result John Butler was later granted Crayford Plantation, William Claibourne’s estate on Kent Island, where he died without issue. Many of the Kent Islanders, who were loyal to William Claibourne, settled in Virginia along the south bank of the Potomac River after the island was finally ceded to Maryland.
On 20 Mar1706/7 John Graves Sr.1 assigned 100 acres in King William County on the Pamunkey to his son, John Graves Jr. This tract was the same parcel purchased by John Graves Sr. from John Claibourne on 6May1704, described as being north of the Pamunkey adjacent to White Oak Landing. It is believed that John Graves Sr. and his family continued to live in King and Queen County until at least 1729. John Graves was reported on the 1704 Quit Rent Roll with 150 acres in King and Queen County, and 100 acres in King William County. The authors believe these two John Graves to have been the same person, namely, John Graves Sr.1. It is conceivable that the location of John Graves Sr.’s1 land in King and Queen County was near the location of the Graves plantation shown on the Frye-Jefferson map of 1744 (see Figure 4A-1) on the east side of the Mattapony-York River a couple of miles below West Point.
An earlier record from King William County suggests the presence of a John Graves in the vicinity of West Point in 1703. On 8Oct1703 a power of attorney was recorded in King William County wherein Francis Wells, London Mariner authorized Captain George Braxton, Virginia Merchant to collect his debts, which was witnessed by John West, John Graves and Henry Fox, recorded on 20Dec1703. The identity of this John Graves is not known with certainty, but it is probable that he may have been John Graves Sr.1. King William County was formed in 1702, when it was partitioned from King and Queen County. From the 1704 deed it has been established that John Graves Sr.1 was living in King and Queen County. Although John Graves Sr.1 is not known to have owned land in King William County prior to the purchase of 100 acres in 1704, it is conceivable that he may have had business transactions extending into the Pamunkey Neck area.
The fact that this power of attorney (POA) was also witnessed by John West and Henry Fox provides further evidence of interests centered around West Point and the lower Pamunkey Neck. Members of the West, Fox, Croshaw and Claibourne families had intermarriages. The earliest known intermarriage in these families was between Governor John West Sr. and Anne Claibourne in about 1613 at Hampshire, England. Then there was Unity Croshaw, daughter of Joseph Croshaw, and Colonel John West Jr., son of Governor John West in about 1664. The next such intermarriage was between Anne West, daughter of John West Jr. and Unity Croshaw, and Henry Fox in about 1683. Anne Fox, daughter of Henry Fox and Anne West, married Thomas Claibourne, son of Captain Thomas Claibourne and Sarah Fenn in about 1703. Henry Fox Jr., son of Henry Fox and Anne West, married 2nd Mary Claibourne, daughter of William Claibourne Jr. and Elizabeth Ludman in about 1722. The John West, who witnessed this POA was probably John West III, son of John West Jr. and Unity Croshaw, as John West Jr. died about 1691. The Henry Fox, who witnessed this POA, may have been either Henry Sr. or Henry Jr., as both were adults living near West Point in 1703. The West and Fox families were indirectly connected through intermarriages with members of the Claibourne family. It was John Claibourne Jr., first cousin of Mary Claibourne and Thomas Claibourne, who sold two tracts on the Pamunkey to John Graves Sr.1.
John West I
“John West I was born in Hampshire, England and was the son of Thomas West, 2nd Lord Delaware. He was also brother of Nathaniel West, Francis West and Thomas West, Virginia Governor and 3rd Lord Delaware. John West I graduated Magdalene College, Oxford on 1Dec1613 with a Bachelor of Arts degree. He was an investor in the Virginia Company and in 1618 immigrated to the Colony along with his brother, Thomas West, the 3rd Lord Delaware, where he established a plantation known as Westover on the James River below James Town. Two people were killed at Westover during the 22Mar1622 Indian uprising. After the attack John West led a company of men on a retaliatory raid against Tanx Powhatan. One of John West’s debtors was George Thorpe, headman at Berkeley Hundred, who died during the Indian attack. On 16 Feb1624, West was living on the lower side of the James River, within the corporation of James City and east of Grays Creek. He shared his home briefly with his nephew, Nathaniel West II, and his sister-in-law, Frances [nee Grevill, married 2. Samuel Mathews], the widow of his brother, Nathaniel West I. On 13Jan1627, Captain John West, as a councilor, was assigned one of the defunct Virginia Company tenants. He apparently continued to live on his plantation east of Gray’s Creek, for on 7Mar1629, he was placed in command of the settlements between Paces Paines and Hog Island, and he also represented that area as a burgess. In Oct1630, when a decision was made to extend settlement northward to Chiskiack [along York River], Colonel John West I was among the first to patent land there. His York River property was seated by 1632 and called the Indian Field plantation, though eventually it became known as Bellfield. In 1631 West returned to the Council of State and held office until his death in 1659. In 1634 he became a justice for York County. When Governor John Harvey was thrust from office in May1635, John West (as senior council member) was elected governor. After Governor Harvey was reinstated, he had West arrested on a charge of mutiny and sent him to England, where he was detained until he could be placed on trial. In West’s absence, Governor Harvey seized his property. When John West returned to Virginia, his confiscated belongings were restored and he was designated muster-master. In 1652 he received a patent for 3000 acres at the tip of Pamunkey Neck, where the Mattaponi and Pamunkey Rivers join to form the York River, later being designated as West Point or de la Ware. John West died in the colony in 1659. His son and heir, John West II was born around 1632.”
John West I married Ann Claibourne in about 1613 at Hampshire, England, and they had a son, John West II and possibly another son, Anthony and daughter, Alice. In addition to the earlier land acquisitions described in the above excerpted biography at Westover in James City County and at Indian Field at Kisiacke in York County, John West I began filing patents in the lower Pamunkey Neck in the 1650’s discussed as follows:
On the various patent records compiled for John West, etal on Pamunkey Neck, there are several different spellings for Matadequin Creek, including Mattadequin, Maddaquin, Mattadaquin, Maddaquine and Maddicon. Based on the references to abutting property owners and their proximity to the south side of the Mattapony River, there is little doubt that these variously spelled references were all for the same stream. All efforts to locate this stream on any maps, past or present were unsuccessful, but it is believed to have joined the Mattapony from the southwest about six miles above the confluence of the Mattapony and Pamunkey Rivers at West Point.
It is interesting to note that West used himself, his wife, and his son for the required tally of 31 headrights, including four separate voyages for himself and two for his wife, but only one for his son, John West Jr. A thorough search of earlier patent records did not include any previous usage of these family members as headrights. This suggests that the crossings counted in this patent may have been the complete tally of crossings for these three members of the West family. If so, this suggests that John West Jr. may have been born in England, and was immigrating to Virginia for the first time. Similarly, it might suggest that Ann West had come to the Colony on an earlier voyage, possibly before John West Sr. was summoned back to England under orders of the Governor, Sir John Harvey in 1637. Since John West Sr. reclaimed his properties on his return to the Colony (sometime around 1642) he probably had no need to utilize his families accumulated headrights until he filed this patent in 1650 on the Pamunkey Neck.
This 1200 acre tract which Diggs had purchased from Captain John West and his wife, Ann in 1650 was located on the west side of the York River in Hampton Parish which included the Kiskyache area. No patent record could be found for the initial grant to John West, but it is presumed to have been acquired sometime in the 1630’s when the Governing Council decided to expand settlement into that region along the upper York River. It would appear that John West sold this tract to Diggs only a few months after taking out the first patent on Pamunkey Neck.
This tract is believed to have been southerly of the 1550 acres acquired on 6May1650, nearer to West Point.
This tract included the 850 acre patent in Item No. 3 above. This combined acreage of 3000 acres is believed to have been situated within a couple miles to the north of present day West Point.
This 5000 acre tract was immediately to the west of Captain John West’s 3000 acre tract patented in Item No. 4 above. Note that on the renewal filing the tract was described as being abutted to the west by Cohoake [Cohoke] Creek. It is conceivable that one of the headrights, Phillip West, was a kinsman of John West Sr. It is also interesting to note that William Claibourne reported a Phillipp West, perhaps in May1637, as one of the men who came to Kent Island with Captain Evelyn. Whether that Phillipp West was the same person as this headright is not known. It is also important to note that John West Sr.’s wife was named Anne Claibourne of unknown ancestry. Given the fact that William Claibourne chose a tract abutting John West Sr. on Pamunkey Neck, and that there were later intermarriages between the Claibourne and West families in Virginia, it seems highly likely that John West’s wife was a kinsperson of William Claibourne. It is also possible that Phillipp West was a kinsman of John West Sr.
Based on the description of the tract patented by Major William Lewis described in Item No. 9, hereinafter, as including 775 acres (moiety) of the 1550 acres Colonel John West patented on 6May1650 and being known as Chymahocans [Cheemockin?], it is very likely that this 1750 acre tract patented to Joseph Croshaw also abutted Captain John West’s land on the Mattadequin to the north and west.
This 1000 acre tract was situated on the northeast side of the Mattapony River in Gloucester County, probably across the river and upstream from Mattadequin Creek. This land would fall within New Kent County when it was partitioned from Gloucester County later that year (1654).
This tract was also patented on 27May1654 and in the same area on the northeast side of the Mattapony. The identity of Toby West is unknown, but given the matching dates and locations, it is likely that Toby West was a kinsman of Colonel John West Sr. On 8Jun1659 Major Joseph Croshaw filed a patent for this same 500 acres, abutting Thomas Saunders. However, in the Croshaw patent the land was described as being on the southeast side of the Mettapony [sic]. Sometime between 27May1654 and 8Jun1659 Toby West assigned this tract to Joseph Croshaw, who filed a patent due for the transport of ten persons, incluing Cuthbert Chroshaw [sic] and Noy Chroshaw. Presumably, these Chroshaws were kinsmen of Joseph Croshaw. There is record of an intermarriage between members of the Croshaw and Noy families in England, from whom Noy Croshaw presumably descended.
This patent of 2600 acres by Major William Lewis included 775 acres (a moiety) purchased from John West, which was one-half of the 1550 acres tract patented by West on 6May1650. This tract was situated on the Mattadequin in Pamunkey Neck adjacent to John West and Joseph Croshaw lands.
This tract also abutted Captain John West Sr. and Joseph Croshaw lands.
The so-called mountains in this patent were merely the bluff of the high river banks running along the ridge or watershed between the Mattapony and Pamunkey Rivers.
This land abutted Captain John West’s land and included the 1750 acres granted to Joseph Croshaw, which Croshaw assigned to George Lydall on 25Nov1654. Note that this tract abutted lands of Anthony Arnold, who is believed to have been the great grandfather of William Arnold who married Elizabeth Bostick, presumed sister or first cousin of Valentine Bostick. Anthony Arnold became embroiled in Bacon’s Rebellion and was convicted of treason and hanged in chains at West Point in 1676. All of Anthony Arnold’s property was forfieted to the Crown.
It is also important to note that George Braxton, to whom the subject POA was granted, was reported as having been a Justice of the Peace of King and Queen County in 1702. Similarly, William Claibourne, Henry Fox and John West were reported as Justices of the Peace for the newly formed King William County in 1702. Also, in 1701/2, the year before the formation of King and Queen County, Henry Fox and Thomas Claibourne were Justices of the Peace for King and Queen County. Further, in 1699 Henry Fox and William Claibourne were J.P.’s for King and Queen.
There was also an interesting and applicable series of petitions filed between 1704 and perhaps 1706 in which Henry Fox and the heirs of Colonel John West, namely John West III, Thomas West, Henry Fox [husband of Anne West] and Nathaniel West claimed rights to 4000 acres in King William County. According to these petitions, entitlement to these 4000 acres had come into question as the original patent, ostensibly issued to Colonel John West Sr. in 1654 had become lost from the records of King and Queen County. The petitioners had succeeded to this land as heirs, being grandsons and grandson-in-law of the original patentee, John West Sr. They were petitioning the court for “quiet title”, based on occupancy and improvement of the said land over many years. The outcome of these petitions is unclear, but presumably the heirs of Colonel John West Sr. ultimately prevailed in this endeavor. The 4000 acres that was the subject of these petitions is believed to have been the combination of the 3000 acres granted on 6Mar1653 and the 1000 acres granted on 27May1654. It is conceivable that title to this land became clouded by the participation of John West Jr. in Bacon’s Rebellion. Even though he was charged with sedition and treason, he was not punished for his actions. It is possible that he may have forfeited rights to propterty.
Henry Fox, Sr.
Henry Fox Sr. is believed to have been the son of John Fox. John Fox was transported to the Colony by John Talbott and Elias Downes, who on 18Dec1667 received a patent for 1600 acres situated in New Kent County on the south side of the Mattapony River a little below the sunken ground to the forks of Fawnes branch to the land of Edward Holmes for the transport of 32 persons, including William Claibourne. Also, on 5Oct1672 Colonel Thomas Goodrich was granted 2200 acres in New Kent County on north side of Indian Path from Mattapony Towne that was at head of Piscataway Creek unto new town planted on Mattapony River adjacent Captain [Thomas] Brewerton [Brereton] [son-in-law of William Claibourne Sr.] for transport of 44 persons, including same 32 persons (John Fox and William Claibourne inclusive) as were used in Talbott and Downes patent on 18Dec1667 hereinabove. Several patents were located which seem to establish a plantation for John Fox somewhere between Poropotank Creek and Pepetico Creek along the north side of the York River in New Kent County, later King and Queen County discussed as follows:
This tract was situated between Poropotank Creek and Pepetico Creek generally as illustrated on Figure 4A-3. It is believed that John Fox had received a patent or purchased a tract sometime around 1665 or 1666 adjacent to this patent being filed by John Lewis. It is believed that this John Fox was the same person claimed as a headright on the John Talbott and Elias Downes patent on 18Dec1667, as well as on the Thomas Goodrich patent on 5Oct1672, it should be kept in mind that the claiming of headrights were transferrable, and that the patent filing dates were oftentimes years, if not more than a decade after the date of immigration. Consequently, it is possible that John Fox may have been in Virginia for many years prior to his first appearance in the Talbott and Downes patent filed in 1667. Given the later claim of headright by Goodrich, it is probable that he had purchased these headrights, or had been assigned the initial 1600 acre patent from Talbott and Downes.
This reference to Captain John Fox’s plantation is believed to have been the same tract in possesion of John Fox and referenced in John Lewis’ patent in Item No. 1, above. Note that Poropotank Creek was the southern boundary of Stratton Major Parish, and that this area fell within King and Queen County upon its partition from New Kent County in 1691.
This was the earliest record located for Henry Fox, who is believed to have been the son of John Fox, born about 1650 in England and married to Anne West about 1673. Again, this tract is believed situated between Poropotank Creek and Pepetico Creek.
This is believed to be the same Henry Fox referenced in Item No. 3, above. He is described as son and heir of John Fox, who presumably was dead before the filing of the patent in Item No. 3. Note that this filing included 200 acres inherited by Henry Fox from his father, who had purchased from Thomas Hankes, plus 100 acres of new land for transport of two persons. These adjacent land owners in the area between Poropotank Creek and Pepetico Creek will be shown later in this chapter to have possible relevance to John Graves Sr.1.
The purpose of presenting these familial connections is to demonstrate that the Fox, West and Claibourne families were closely related and living in close proximity to West Point at the time this POA was recorded. By extension, it can be inferred that the John Graves, who witnessed this POA, probably also shared a close relationship and geographic proximity to these families. There was no other John Graves, save John Graves Sr.1, known to be living in the immediate vicinity of West Point in 1703. Therefore, there is a high degree of probability that the John Graves, who witnessed this POA, was John Graves Sr.1.
Since the records for King and Queen County have been destroyed, it is unknown just where within the County John Graves may have lived. But there are some extant records that provide some limited information on John Graves’ existence during these early years of his residency in the Colony. For example, the 1704 Quit Rent Rolls which survived both within the colony and in England provide the following information regarding relevent families within King and Queen and King William Counties:
Š King and Queen County
o John Graves – 150 acres (Note: There were two identical records for John Graves found in the English record, whereas, there was only one entry found for John Graves in King and Queen Couny in the colonial quit rent record. This begs the question as to whether there were actually two separate John Graves, or whether the English records were a duplicate record for the same person.)
o John Graves – 150 acres
o Robert Graves – 150 acres
Š King William County
o John Graves – 100 acres
o Thomas Graves – 100 acres
o John Claibourne – 50 acres
o Col William Claibourne – 3000 acres
o Capt Thomas Claibourne – 1000 acres
Based on the DNA testing compiled by the GFA, it has been established that John Graves Sr.1 was not related to either Captain Thomas Graves, ancient planter, or any other of the disparate Graves lines living in colonial Virginia in the 17th and 18th Centuries. This then begs the question from whence did John Graves Sr.1 originate and how did he come to be residing in King and Queen County in 1703? A review of published genealogical research on the Virginia Graves families, including that which is posted on the GFA website, would have us believe that the earliest record of John Graves Sr.1 was when he purchased 100 acres in King William County from John Claibourne on 6May1704. Yet the POA on 8Oct1703 clearly places John Graves Sr.1 in King and Queen County eight months earlier. Additionally the 1704 Quit Rent roll gleaned from records in England showed two separate entries for John Graves in King and Queen County in possession of 150 acres each. The earliest record found for John Graves Jr.2 was as a witness on the deed in Jan1706 wherein his father purchased 400 acres from John Claibourne. Since there were two listings for John Graves on the English Quit Rent Roll in King and Queen County, it raises the question as to whether these were duplicate entries for John Graves Sr. or were they for John Graves Sr. and John Graves Jr. Regardless, it is a fair assumption that John Graves Sr. may have been in King and Queen County for at least three years prior to Oct1703 in order to have procured land in that County.
Unfortunately, the colonial records for King and Queen County have been destroyed, and only remnants of the whole record have been pieced together giving a spotty glimpse at what might have been. Perhaps the most complete record for this period is found in the land patents, and even that record does not show anyone named John Graves receiving land in either New Kent County or King and Queen County between 1654 and 1700. The territory which became King and Queen County in 1691 had previously been a part of New Kent County from 1654. Try as they might the authors were unable to locate any bills of sale or grants to John Graves, Thomas Graves or Robert Graves in King and Queen County or in New Kent County.
The first clue as to the possible location of John Graves1’ property in King and Queen County was found on the 1744 Frye and Jefferson map of Virginia and Maryland, which shows the name of “Gravess” on the north side of the York River diagonally opposite from West Point. Following this clue the authors were led to the discovery of a newspaper article from the Williamsburg Gazette dated 10Jun1739 excerpted as follows:
“The Ferry commonly called Graves’ Ferry over York River near West Point, formerly kept by Robert Willis, is now kept by the subscriber… John Waller.”
This reference to “Graves’ Ferry” then led to the discovery of a brief discussion of a ferry which operated for more than a century over the York and Pamunkey Rivers near West Point excerpted as follows:
“Dudley’s Ferry – Across the Mattapony from West Point is the site of the Dudley Ferry Plantation, now called Brookshire… The earliest record of this tract along the east end of the Mattapony River is mentioned in the patent to Edward Guthry dated 25Oct1695, to 753 acres of land, the bounds of which are conclusive and may be followed to this day. “…on main swamp of Pepetico Creek…by ferry road…to the Mattapony and York Rivers…to mouth of Pepetico Creek…300 acres formerly Richard Major granted 17Jan1649…300 acres to Edward Simpson by patent on 4Dec1654…”. Edward Guthry was owner of land whereon the ferry called Gutteries, which crossed the Mattapony and Pamunkey from the upper side of the Mattapony River to Brickhouse below the Pamunkey River. This ferry was established by an Act of the General Assembly in 1702…It is not known when the Guthrys sold their lands on the Mattapony, but it appears that the ferry had changed its name to Graves, and one Robert Willis was living here in 1737…On17Mar1737/8 the house of Robert Willis at Graves Ferry in King and Queen County was set fire…30Mar1739. “The Ferry, commonly called Graves Ferry over York River near West Point, formerly kept by Robert Willis is now kept by me the Subscriber. John Waller”…The ferry continued to cross the three rivers, plying its tedious way to deliver passengers at one of the three landings: the Brickhouse, West Point and above the Mattapony River. In 1748, the ferries mentioned in the Acts of Assembly were: Brickhouse to West Point, and Brickhouse to Dudley’s.”
“The ferry which crossed the Pamunkey was an important link in the route from the north to Williamsburg, besides it served the people living in that part of the County [New Kent] above the York and Mattapony Rivers and those on the Pamunkey Neck who were compelled to cross the river to attend to their legal affairs at the County Court [at Brick House].”
“By an act passed at the same session , entitled, "An act for the regulation and settlement of Ferries; and for the dispatch of public expresses," a ferry was established across York River from the Brick House to Graves's, " the price for a man one shilling, for a man and horse two and twenty pence halfpenny," and from West Point to Graves's, " the price for a man six pence, for a man and horse one shilling." (III. Hen. St. at Large, pp. 471, 472.)”
“By an Act passed at the Oct1748 General Assembly a statue was adopted which set Ferry Crossings and Rates, including the following: From Brick House to West point, or West Point to Brick House (2d.). From Brick House to Dudley's, or Dudley's to Brick House (1p. for a man; 10 1/2 d. for a horse). From West Point to Dudley's, or Dudley's to West Point (6d.).”
The foregoing citations regarding Dudley’s Ferry clearly indicate the presence of someone named “Graves” as early as 1705 in the vicinity of the eastern shore of the York River immediately downstream of the confluence of the Mattapony River near the general location of “Gravess” shown on the 1744 Fry and Jefferson Map. These records suggest that the Ferry was owned and operated by someone named Graves from about 1704 to about 1730. Also, that this Ferry was at various times during most of the 18th Century in the ownership of Edward Guthry, Unknown Graves, Robert Willis, John Waller and William Dudley. It is likely that John Graves Sr.1 took over the operation of the Ferry in an interval between mssrs. Guthry and Willis, and may have operated the Ferry until the Graves families removal to Spotsylvania County in about 1730. Refer to Figure 4A-3 for a general location of the Ferry landing on the eastern shore of the York River and the approximate routes it plied between Graves’ Landing, West Point and the Brick House.
Just when John Graves Sr. came into possession of Graves Ferry is unknown, but the authors have reason to believe that it occurred between 1702 and 1705, possibly as early as 1703. Edward Guthry acquired the 300 acre tract, from which the ferry operated, on 25Oct1695. This deed made reference to “the ferry path” which traversed this property, suggesting that a ferry had been in operation at this location earlier than 1695.
In Apr 1702 the General Council heard a petition from Jane King which complained against Daniel Guthry and John Bailie for interfering with her ferry’s landing of passengers on the north side of the York River. This complaint is clear evidence that the Guthrys were operating this ferry in 1702, and had probably been operating it since acquiring the land in 1695. The General Council in 1705 adopted an act entitled: "An act for the regulation and settlement of Ferries; and for the dispatch of public expresses". In this act the fare was established for the Ferry crossing the York River between Brick House, West Point and Graves’s [sic]. This act clearly establishes that someone named Graves had taken over operation of the ferry sometime between 1702 and 1705. In an announcement printed in the Williamsburg Gazette dated 10Jun1739, John Waller made reference to “the Ferry commonly known as Graves’ Ferry over the York River near West Point…”. The fact that this ferry continued to be publicly referred to as “Graves’ Ferry” in 1739, and was referenced on the Frye and Jefferson map in 1744 suggests that its operation by the Graves family was of long duration. Hence, the authors believe that John Graves Sr.1 continuously operated this ferry until the family began relocating to Spotsylvania sometime after 1729, since John Graves Sr.’s whereabouts are unknown until 1737.
Having established John Graves Sr.1 as the probable operator of the Graves Ferry between about 1703 and 1730 it is reasonable to assume that he did not suddenly appear on the eastern shore of the York River, but that he must have had a presence in that area of some long standing. The fact that Edward Guthrie witnessed the deed when on 6May1704 John Graves purchased 100 acres from John Claibourne, suggests an acquaintance of several years. Edward Guthrie was found to have witnessed only one other public document, so it is clear that he was not in the habit of witnessing legal documents on a regular basis. The singularity of an act by Edward Guthry as a witness lends strong weight to the likelihood of John Graves Sr.1 having been the person who took over the ferry operation from Edward Guthry. Given that there were two (perhaps three) separate reports of land ownership in King and Queen County in the 1704 Quit Rents for someone named Graves at 150 acres each, it seems possible that the combined total of 300 [perhaps 450] acres was for the Edward Guthry ferry landing previously owned by Edward Simpson. It is also possible that the double entries for John Graves were not for the same person, but rather for John Graves Sr. and John Graves Jr. It is also possible that John Graves and Robert Graves were kinsmen, possibly John Graves Sr.1 having been the father of Robert Graves.
The only recorded existence of someone possibly named Graves in the vicinity of Graves Landing prior to 1703 was in a reference to “Grayes Plantation” found on a few patent records in the 1680’s near Pepetico Creek. It is conceivable that this may have been a transcription error, and may have in fact been a reference to “Graves Plantation”. Given this as a possibility the authors have undertaken an analysis of the relevant land records in an effort to pinpoint the location of this tract in relationship to Graves Landing. First, the patent documents which included the “Grayes Plantation” references are as follows:
This patent and the ones in Items No. 2 and 3, below, were adjacent to Mr. Grayes plantation. By their descriptions these tracts are known to be in the same vicinity near the head of Pepetico Creek.
By virtue of this tract abutting George Major, Mr. Coale and Grayes Plantation, it is clearly in the same vicinity as the tract in Item No. 1, above.
There was still the reference to Mr. Grayes plantation abutting this property in 1697.
So, here we have three separate references to a tract of land somewhere near the head of Pepetico Creek in the ownership of someone named Grayes, or possibly Graves. Before attempting to isolate the location of this tract, there was another ownership anomaly in the same general vicinity that required attention, namely a tract owned by Joseph Hayes. In fact, initially the authors thought that the references to Grayes plantation may have had reference to Joseph Hayes’ tract, since they each had abutting ownerships in common, namely Ashwell Batten and Richard Major. This possibility became all the more compelling since it was Richard Major who was the original patentee of the tract that ultimately became Graves Landing, and Ashwell Batten was the abutting land owner just inland from Graves Landing. Joseph Hayes patent is abstracted as follows:
Ordinarily the authors would not be inclined to make a connection between the names of Grayes and Hayes, except for the discovery of a reference located in connection with the Taliaferro family. First, make note of the fact that the Hockley Plantation, located only five miles downstream from Graves Landing was the ancestral home of the Taliaferro family. Ashwell Batten received a grant of 1000 acres along the northwest side of Perrins Creek, later known as Hockley Creek, on 30Apr 1651. By 1735 William Taliaferro was in possession of Ashwell Batten’s tract which became the ancestral seat of the Taliaferro family through three consecutive generations, and which is known today as Hockley Plantation. In an item that appeared in the Taliaferro Family newsletter it was suggested that their family researchers have struggled with the apparent intermingling of an ancestor variously using the names of Gray and Hay:
“Joyce Browning (firstname.lastname@example.org) An online correspondent (part of my MOORE NEWS group) is an outstanding researcher of English information. Knowing that I was curious about the Taliaferro-Hay-Gray question, and other Taliaferro- related families, he sent the below information which is certainly interesting in that it shows us how the Gray/Hay may have become linked in England. Could this be why John Gray of Whitehaven, Cumberland, England, changed his name and became John Hay in Virginia? Bill Moore has evidently discovered how this change may have been more logical. The dimension of the Gray-Hay question is one of the most fascinating we have. Somehow, we’re going to have to discover more about the Taliaferro marriages in England to Gray (Joane Taliaferro, widow of Bartholomew and Anne, daughter of Francis) and Hay/Haie (Francis Taliaferro).” 
Having found this rather arcane reference to the possible intermingling of the surnames of Hayes and Grayes, the authors were compelled to also isolate the grant to Joseph Hayes, in order to ascertain whether the references to Grayes plantation may have actually been in reference to the Joseph Hayes grant. A series of patents were compiled which were linked either to Edward Simpsons [Richard Majors] properties at Graves Landing, to Grayes Plantation or to Joseph Hayes patent, which resulted in the assemblage of property owners shown in Figure 4A-4. The details of each of the patents will not be presented herein, but the methodology utilized in the preparation of Figure 4A-4 is discussed.
Since no patent could be located for Grayes Plantation, its location and approximate size was inferred by assembling the adjacent properties. A plat for each adjacent property was created and overlaid onto a USGS Topographic map base. The size of each plat was scaled to the approximate acreage of each parcel. The shape of the actual plat was unknown, so in most instances an initially square plat was reshaped to fit within known geographic landmarks such as streams or swamps while attempting to maintain the same scalar area (acres). The positioning of each plat on the map base was guided by the directional references contained in the patent descriptions, i.e., “N.N.W. of land of Ashwell Batten”. This map reconstruction effort commenced with the 300 acre grant to Richard Major in 1649, which was known to have been located on the York River between Fenton’s Creek and Pepetico Swamp. Then each abutting plat was added in sequence easterly along Pepetico Creek to its headwaters where the Grayes Plantation was presumed to be situated. Similarly the placement of John King’s 500 acre tract on the York River near the mouth of Poropotank Creek was placed on the map as a beginning point for locating Joseph Hayes tract.
As a result of this grant map reconstruction effort, it was possible to demonstrate that the Grayes Plantation and Joseph Hayes tracts were two distinctly different tracts separated from each other by about five miles distance. Thusly, it has been shown that the Grayes Plantation Tract had no connection to Joseph Hayes.
There was no record found for anyone named Gray or Graves receiving land in New Kent, Gloucester or King and Queen County prior to 1704 along the eastern side of the York and Mattapony Rivers. However, there were 1704 quit rent records for John Graves with 150 acres, John Graves with 150 acres, Robert Graves with 150 acres, Joseph Gray with 200 acres and Samuel Gray with 40 acres. From these facts it can be established that there were Grayes living in King and Queen County prior to 1704 who could have been the owners of the land identified as Grayes Plantation. It can also be established that the combined acreage reported for John Graves, John Graves and Robert Graves was 300 acres (or 450 acres), the same amount of land contained in the original grant to Richard Major, which was later assigned to Edward Simpson, who assigned to Edward Guthry, and which presumably came to be known as Graves Landing.
From the foregoing it might be deduced that the Grayes Plantation may have been owned by Joseph Gray. It might also be concluded that the references to Grayes Plantation was an error in transcription, and actually was a reference to a Graves Plantation. How might this distinction be significant in the search for the identity and origin of John Graves Sr.1? If this were in fact Graves Plantation, it would be an indication that John Graves may have been present in New Kent County prior to 1683. If John Graves were present in New Kent County prior to 1683, this would add another dimension to the search for his origins. It occurs to the authors that there are several possible scenarios as to how John Graves came to be in King and Queen County in 1703:
2.1 John Graves was an original immigrant.
2.2 John Graves was born in the colony, son of an original immigrant.
Assuming each of the scenarios, the authors set about trying to identify potential candidates for John Graves or his father using the headrights listed on patent and grant records from Nugent’s “Cavaliers and Pioneers” between about 1645 and 1700.
Scenario 1 – Assuming John Graves to have been at least fourteen years of age at time of immigration and to have been born no earlier than 1650, this search was limited to persons named John Graves or close variation who were listed as a headright between 1665 and 1700. Because of the time window of this search it was limited to Nugent’s Volumes I, II and III.
This John Graves has potential, but date of patent could put immigration date back to about 1663, which might push his birth year back to 1650 or earlier assuming age of fourteen. Assuming a death year of around 1738, this would place his age at death at around 88 years. Not impossible, but unlikely.
Using the same rationale as in Item No. 1, this could place this John Graves’ age at death to around 85 years. This seems more plausible/possible, so he must be considered a candidate. One other factor that might be considered is the patentee, William Waller. John Waller, who acquired Graves Ferry sometime around 1739, may have been John Waller, the immigrant, or his son, John Waller Jr. as both were alive in 1739. John Waller, the immigrant is believed to have had an uncle named William Waller, as well as a brother named William. William Waller, the patentee, would have been too old to have been John Waller’s brother, but could have been his uncle.
William Waller and Richard Fossaker were reported in 1692 in Stafford County in possession of 400 and 800 acres, presumably including the land granted by this patent. Consequently, it would appear that William Waller established residency in Virginia and improved this patent or that Richard Fossaker may have acted as his agent in the Colony. No other records could be located for this William Waller so no connection could be establish to John Waller.
While there are only a few instances in the records of members of the Graves family having interaction with members of the Waller family, they did reside contemporaneously in the immediate vicinity of one another in both King and Queen/King William Counties and later in Spotsylvania County.
Colonel John Waller, the progenitor of the Waller family in Virginia received a patent of 800 acres in 1699 on Pamunkey Neck adjacent to Joseph Croshaw and John West. He was appointed Sheriff of King and Queen County in 1699. These close and contemporaneous residencies of the two families during the life of John Graves Sr.1 and his sons does not necessarily signify any direct connections, but is worthy of notice.
It is also worth noting that John Graves Sr.1 has been genetically linked to the Greaves family of Northamptonshire and Buckinghamshire. The Waller Family from which John Waller and William Waller are presumed to descend is believed to have their origins in Buckinghamshire. Again, this is a geographic connection between the Waller and Greaves [Graves] families worth noting.
Probably no connection to John Graves.
It must be considered a possibility that the surnames of Gray and Graves could be erroneously transcribed. Consequently, because of the timing and relatively close geographic proximity, this John Gray could be considered a candidate.
By the same reasoning as the previous item, this John Gray might be considered a candidate.
Might be a candidate, but because of spelling and distance must be considered very low probability.
Name spelling is good fit, but distance from King and Queen not likely.
This would appear to be same John Graves as preceding item. His having taken out a patent in Lower Norfolk would not favor his relocating to King and Queen County.
This could have been the same John Gray who was a headright in Item No. 6, above. If so, it seems very unlikely that he would have taken out a patent at the head of Pepetico Creek prior to 1680.
In summary, of all those potential candidates identified under Scenario 1, the John Graves shown as a headright under candidate No. 2 would seem to have the greatest potential for being John Graves Sr.1. The connection between the patentee, William Waller, and John Waller and his descendants of King and Queen/King William Counties and later in Spotsylvania County, as well as ancestral ties to Buckinghamshire all auger in favor of this candidate. The most significant negative is the potential age at death for this candidate of 85 years. Although the men in this Graves family tended toward longevity, this would seem an extraordinary age even under an estimate based on the most favorable of assumptions.
Scenario 2.1 – This scenario assumes that John Graves Sr.1 was the original immigrant and owner of Grayes [Graves] Plantation. This scenario would place John Graves in New Kent County near the head of Pepetico Creek with a patent before 1683. For this scenario it will be assumed that John Graves was 90 years old at death, took out the patent for Grayes Plantation in 1682 at the age of 21 years, served no period of indenture and was fourteen years or older at time of immigration. These assumptions provide the widest possible window for immigration at between 1663 and 1682. This immigration window would include candidates No. 1 thru No. 7 presented under Scenario 1, above. The same conclusion would result, that candidate No. 2 offers the strongest potential for John Graves Sr.
Scenario 2.2 – This scenario assumes that John Graves Sr. was born in Virginia to a heretofore unnamed Graves immigrant. Assuming a more realistic birth year for John Graves Sr.1 at around 1665 and his having been about 73 years old at death, and his father’s age at no more than 45 years at the time of John’s birth, then his father would have immigrated sometime between 1640 and 1665. Using this immigration window the following candidates for John’s father were identified:
Of this group of thirteen candidates under Scenario 2.2, the most compelling prospect is candidate No. 8, William Graves, who along with Ann Graves (presumably William’s wife) were named as headrights under a patent issued to Peter Ford and Edward Racle [Rackley] in 1658 for 640 acres in New Kent County on the north side of the Mattapony River. Peter Ford first appeared in colonial records in 1648 as a headright to George Read, who was granted 2000 acres on the south side of Peanketanke (Dragon) River and west side of Chiskyake Creek. Also included as headrights to George Read in 1648, were Captain Nicholas Martin [Martiau] and his daughters, Jane and Elizabeth. Captain Nicholas Martiau was of French Huguenot ancestry, having immigrated to Virginia sometime before the Indian massacre of 1621/22 when he is recorded as leading a party up the James River in pursuit of the Indians. Elizabeth Martiau was the wife of George Read, their having married in 1641 at Elizabeth City. Captain Martiau had been among the first to file patents along the upper York River around 1639 when the General Assembly voted to open European settlement at Chiskiake. The patent taken out by George Read, Secretary of the Council, in 1648 was situated along the north side of the Mattapony River, presumably near Walker Town in an area which ultimately became King and Queen County. John Fenton was also listed as a headright on Read’s patent. Note that it was Henry Fenton who filed a patent for 1500 acres along the south side of Arraciaco Creek near Graves Landing in 1649. Lastly, it is noteworthy that another daughter of Nicholas Martiau named Sarah married Captain William Fuller. Both Nicholas Martiau and William Fuller became embroiled in the affairs of colonial Maryland for which William Fuller was exiled to Barbados, leaving his wife and children behind in Maryland. By the late 1670’s Captain Fuller had retrieved his family from Maryland and settled along the banks of the Ashley River in South Carolina.
Peter Ford appeared in connection with two other patents listed as follows:
By virtue of this patent abutting the lands of Robert Abrall, Mr. Barnhouse and William Wyatt, its location can be fixed as being between Heart Quake Creek and Apostique (Mitchell Hill) Creek and about one to two miles downstream from the future King and Queen Court House as illustrated in Figure XX. This tract was located in the same area as the 1658 patent filing which included William and Ann Graves as headrights. In the ensuing analysis the authors attempt to establish connections which tend to support a hypothesis that William and Ann Graves settled in the area that later became King and Queen County. This hypothesis is in part supported by the fact that other persons listed as "headrights" by Peter Ford also settled in that same general area:
This patent is a repeat of Item No. 8 above from the list of candidates for Scenario 2.2. It is repeated here in the chronological sequence of patents filed by Peter Ford, so that it might be discussed in its proper context.
a. Richard Drew was previously claimed as a headright by Capt. John West on 27May1654 for patent of 1,000 acres located on northeast side of Mattapony River, suggesting that Richard Drew had also settled in this same area of New Kent County which later became King and Queen County.
b. Benjamin Houslworth. No additional records could be found for Benjamin Houlsworth. However, on 21Oct1670 Major William Wyatt filed a patent for 1,900 acres in New Kent County situated on north side of Mattapony River abutting land of Richard Barnhouse for various rights, including headrights for the transport of 21 persons including John Holsworth, Ashwill Batten, Ann Batten, etal. This patent was situated at the confluence of Apostique Creek and including lands later granted for the Court House. It is probable that Benjamin Houlsworth and John Holsworth were kinsmen as there was only one other male Holsworth recorded in Virginia patents between 1650 and 1700. Note that Ashwell Batten was later granted lands adjacent to Graves' Ferry.
This tract was located nearby to the other two patents awarded Peter Ford and were in the vicinity of the future location of King and Queen County Court House south of Apostique Creek.
a. Major Thomas Walker on 26Feb1665 received a patent for 2,350 acres called Fort Mattapony on north side of Mattapony River at a small run named Potataweno, originally granted to Edward Diggs, Esq. 1Jun1653. This Thomas Walker is believed to have been the same Thomas Walker claimed as a headright by Peter Ford, and is believed to have been the progenitor of the Walker family which sprang up in Stratton Major Parish, New Kent County (later King and Queen County). Col. John Walker, son of Thomas Walker, married Rachel Croshaw, daughter of Richard Croshaw of York County. Col. Walker made his home at Locust Grove on the Mattapony.
b. Edward Marlow: On 26Jan1674/5 George Curtis received a patent for 800 acres in Gloucester County, Kingston Parish on south side of Peanketank Creek near William Marloe's fence, purchased of Edward Wyatt. It is probable that William Marloe [Marlow] was a son of Edward Marlow, the person claimed as headright by Peter Ford.
This Edmund Jennings is believed to have been the same Edmund Jennings described herein below:
“Jenings Edmund was president of the council of Virginia and acting governor from June, 1706, to August, 1710, was son of Sir Edmund Jenings, of Ripon, Yorkshire, England, and his wife Margaret, daughter of Sir Edward Barkharn, lord mayor of London, 1621-22. He was born in 1659, and died June 2, 1727. He came to Virginia at an early age, and settled in York County. He was appointed attorney-general in 1680, and retained the office till after 1692. He was appointed to the council in 1701, and remained a member till his death. In 1704 he was appointed secretary of state, and from June, 1706, till August 23, 1710, he was acting governor. Later, after the death of Hugh Drysdale, he would have again become acting governor, but was set aside on account of his feeble health. He married, Frances, daughter of Henry Corbin, of Buckingham House.”
Peter Ford was credited with a total of four tracts totaling 2380 acres, three of which were situated along the north side of the Mattapony River between Apostique Creek and Hartquack [Heart Quake] Creek near the Court House. Two of these tracts were in partnership with Edward Rackley. The location of the fourth tract granted by the Indians is uncertain, but may have been on the south side of the Mattapony within the Pamunkey Neck, as Edmund Jennings is known to have owned land in that area. The record suggests that Ford sold his interest in two of these tracts but continued ownership in the area that was to become lower St. Stephen’s Parish, King and Queen County until his death.
Whether these transportees, William Graves and Ann Graves, were ancestors of John Graves Sr.1 cannot be known with absolute certainty, but several factors analyzed later on in this chapter are strongly suggestive of such connection. Even with the paucity of extant records from the King and Queen County region, these Graves have emerged as the most likely candidates for John Graves Sr.1’s ancestors. They are a good fit for the time window and geographic location established for scenario No. 2.2. On the assumption that William Graves could have been the father of John Graves Sr., the authors offer the following analysis.
In 1658 England was in its final year of the reign of Oliver Cromwell and at the height of disdain and dissatisfaction with his puritanical and oppressive rule. Cromwellian laws were particularly harsh for women, and the enforcement of these laws could be arbitrary and brutal. In spite of all his promises for a democratic government, he established himself as “protectorate for life” and ruled the countryside through his “generals”. After ten years of Cromwellian governance the citizens of England, Ireland and Scotland began to see little difference between Cromwell’s brand of “democracy” and that of the monarchical governance it had overthrown. Emigration during Cromwell’s reign was driven by many motivations, most of which had to do with suppression of religious freedom, overbearing puritanical social mores, over-population and poverty.
More than 66% of colonial immigrants were under contract for some period of indentured servitude, typically three to seven years. Because of harsh living conditions and the lack of medical care, indentured servants experienced a high mortality rate, in many instances as much as 50% during the first two years of service. Oftentimes the person who filed the headright was not the original transporter. The original transport typically was paid by the ship’s owner or an agent/broker, who would then sell the indenture contract upon arrival in the colony. Additionally, there was often no connection between the ultimate location of the transportee and the location of the land on which patent they were entered as a headright.
From the limited information that is known of Peter Ford, it would appear that he was not the typical immigrant. First, he was transported by and/or in service to George Read in 1648 whose brief biography is excerpted below:
“George Reade, a native of London, came to Virginia 1637 in Sir John Harvey's party. Harvey was returning to Virginia to assume the office of Governor of the Colony. Reade was appointed Secretary of State, pro tem of the colony in 1640 and served as Acting Governor in the absence of Governor Harvey. He was a member of the House of Burgesses and a member of the Colonial Council until his death. His will, no longer extant, is documented in a York County 18th century land transaction.
York Co, VA Deeds & Bonds Book 5 pp 3 - 6
This Indenture made the sixteenth day of May in the fortieth year of the Reign of our Sovernge Lord George the Second King of Great Britain and in the year of our Lord Christ one thousand seven hundred & forty one between James Mitchell of the Town & County of York and Janet his wife of the one part and Richard Ambler of the same Town & county aforesaid . Whereas George Reade late of the sd county of York Esq decd being siezed in fee of a certain tract or parcel of land lying & being in the said County of York containing by Estimation Eight hundred & fifty acres did by his last Will and Testament in writing bearing date the twenty ninth day of September in the Year of our Lord One thousand six hundred & Seventy devise the same by the name of all that Tract of Land wherein he lived to his wife during life and after her decease to be equally divided between his sons, George & Robert and the heirs of their bodies but and fault of such heirs in either or both of them or in case either or both of them should dye during their minority then he gave and devises his and their parts of the land aforesaid to his sons Francis and Benjamin and the heirs of their bodies with other remainders over as by the said Will duly proved in the General Court of this Colony being thereunto had may more at large appear and whereas the said George Reade one of the sons of the Testator dyed many years ago without issue and after his death the said Francis & Benjamin Reade intend into one ninety or half part of this premises to as afore devised and afterwards the said Robert Reade, Francis Reade & Benjamin Reade by Deed bearing date the twelfth day of November in the Year of our Lord one thousand and six hundred & eighty eight made partition of the premises aforesaid .........
George Reade married Elizabeth Martiau [m. 1641], daughter of Nicolas Martiau (Father of Yorktown). Their daughter Mildred, wife of Col. Augustine Warner, was the g-grandmother of George Washington.
George Read, the son of Robert Read of London and his wife Mildred Windebank, was one of the about one hundred colonists, who emigrated to the colonies from England and Wales before the end of the 17th century, known to have legitimate descent from a Plantagenet King of England.”
A Peter Ford appeared in several court records in York County in the latter part of 1640’s, and is believed to have been the same person who claimed William and Ann Graves as headrights in 1658. There was a later immigrant named Peter Ford who appeared in records of New Kent County in the early 1700’s who is believed to have been a French Huguenot immigrant to Manakin Town. There is no reason to believe that there was any association between Peter Ford, the Huguenot, and Peter Ford of York and New Kent Counties in the later part of the 17th century.
The sale or granting of the 600 acres received of the Indians by Peter Ford to Edmund Jennings is further evidence of his having been a person of some considerable status and means. A brief glimpse at the biography of Edmund Jennings has already been presented, which establishes Mr. Jennings at the top of the landed gentry of colonial Virginia. The established associations of Peter Ford to George Read, Nicholas Martiau and Edmund Jennings would appear to place Peter Ford, himself, as a solid and well-established citizen and planter along the north side of the Mattapony River. Further, his ability to negotiate a grant of 600 acres from the Chickahomony Indians would suggest an involvement with trade and commerce among the Indians on the Pamunkey Neck. During the middle half of the 17th century trading and warring with the Indians in the Pamunkey Neck area was not uncommon. For example, it is known that another Bostick ancestor, Anthony Arnold [Arnell] who operated the Arnold Ferry across the Mattapony a few miles above the King and Queen Court House, had also traded for land in the same area from the Indians.
By 1655 Peter Ford had already established a patent on the northeast side of the Mattapony River. By virtue of that patent having been adjacent to Captain Robert Abrall, Mr. Barnhouse and William Wyatt, it can be established that that tract was situated along the south side of Apostique Creek. Although no definitive markers were provided with the 1658 patent other than being on the north side of the Mattapony, it might be presumed to have been in the same general area as the 1655 patent, if not actually adjacent to it. This would suggest that Peter Ford had an established plantation operation at this location and was in the process of expanding that operation. Consequently, it is reasonable to assume that the headrights associated with the 1658 patent were intended to work on Peter Ford’s plantation operation at Apostique Creek, rather than to be redirected to some other location. The probability of Peter Ford's headrights being settled in the same vicinity as his patents is supported by the fact that several of the descendants of those headrights emerged on later patents awarded in the same general area, i.e. Napier, Ware, Nicholls, Drew, Holsworth, Walker and Marlow.
In the absence of any records in the affirmative or the contrary, it might be assumed that William and Ann Graves were indentured to Peter Ford on his plantation on the Apostique. It might also be assumed that they survived their period of servitude to Peter Ford, and as “free” persons were able to establish themselves on their own lands and to set about raising a family in that area. Whether they were the owners of Grayes [Graves] plantation at the head of Pepetico Creek may never be known. It is entirely possible that they remained and set down roots along the Mattapony in the vicinity of the future Court House in lower St. Stephen's Parish. The only clue we have from the records is that John Graves Sr.1 and John Graves Jr.2 both described themselves as being from Stratton Major Parish. Stratton Major Parish was established by an act of the General Assembly in 1655 as being bounded on the south by Poropotank Creek and being east of the York and Mattapony Rivers. No northern boundary was offered, so presumably it extended north to the headwaters of the Mattapony or to the limits of established settlement. Consequently, William and Ann Graves’ parish of residence likely was within Stratton Major, and later within the southern part of St. Stephens Parish, which is believed to have been formed in the same years as the formation of King and Queen County in 1691. Unfortunately, the records for Stratton Major Parish prior to 1729 have been lost, so any possible church records of the continued presence of members of the Graves family in the area have also been lost.
The foregoing dialogue regarding William and Ann Graves is pure conjecture by the authors, but offers a reasoned and plausible argument for their having been the parents of John Graves Sr.1. If we assume that William and Ann Graves were in their early 20’s at time of immigration, and assume a standard indenture of seven years, they would have been in their late 20’s when they would have completed their indentured service sometime around 1664-65. 1665 has been the approximate birth year proffered by genealogists for John Graves Sr.1, which was extrapolated from a reasonably known birth year of 1685 for John Graves Jr. This timeline fits very well with William and Ann Graves having been the parents of John Graves Sr.1. Another element to consider is the possible identity and ancestry of the Thomas Graves and Robert Graves, who appear in the 1704 quit rent roll for King William County and King and Queen County, respectively. Some genealogists have assumed this Thomas Graves and Robert Graves to have descended from the Graves of Abbingdon Parish, Goucester County, Virginia, but have offered no documentary proof to support such connection. To the authors it seems equally plausible that this Thomas Graves and Robert Graves could have descended from the Northamptonshire Graves' strand, i.e. descended from William and Ann Graves or from John Graves Sr.1, most likely the sons of John Graves Sr.1. Later in this analysis there is a strong rational developed for this Thomas Graves having been Thomas Graves2, son of John Graves Sr.1.
Another factor, which augers in favor of William and Ann Graves as parents of John Graves Sr., is the recurrence of the given name of “William” within the descendent families of John Graves Sr.1 While there is no evidence that John Graves Sr. named a son “William” there are numerous instances of offspring named “William” in later generations of his descendants. Following are several examples of the name “William Graves” occurring in 2nd and 3rd generation families:
Except for the two references to Bostick descendants, these records for William Graves were taken from Genealogy No. 270 on the GFA website. Table 1, below presents the frequency of occurrence of some of the more common male Christian names known to exist within the first three generations of John Graves Sr.'s1 descendents. As illustrated in Table 1, the Christian name of John was by far the most frequently occurring with nineteen instances out of 21 families, whereas Thomas occurred 11 times, William 13 and Richard 7.
It is known that the Christian name of a father and grandfather have a higher probability of being passed on to a male within the following generation than any other name. It is also known that the name of a father or grandfather from the paternal side of a family has a greater probability of recurring than the name of a father or grandfather from the maternal side of the family. It is also known that the Christian name of a father has a higher probability of being passed on to a son than any other name. Given these facts, one might expect a high frequency of occurrence of the Christian names of John and Thomas within the descendent families of John Graves Sr.1. Yet there is no known basis for such a high occurrence of the Christian names of William and Richard within these descendent families.
In order to
place the frequency of occurrence of the names of John, Thomas, William and
Richard into a broader context, a random sampling of the occurrence of these
names in colonial Virginia is illustrated in Table 2. This table was compiled from a sampling of fifteen patents
containing 40 or more headrights granted after Sep1653. On the assumption that a random
occurrence of a certain Christian within any single family unit would
approximate the random occurrence of that same name within the general
population, a comparison was made of the frequency of occurrence for each of
these four Christian names among the descendent Graves' families to their
occurrence within the general population sample. As can be seen in Table 2, the Christian names of John,
Thomas, William and Richard occurred 6 to 8 times more frequently
within the Graves' descendent families than within the random population sample.
Of course, the model on which this comparison has been made could be tweaked to eliminate obvious bias or skew resulting from the influence introduced by names from the maternal side, but the incidence of these anomalies were sufficiently low as to not unduly alter the outcome. For example, when a non-Graves husband's name was William or his father's name was William, this would be expected to introduce bias in favor of a son being named William. But, there were only a few known instances when that occurred, and certainly would not significantly lower the inordinately high frequency of occurrence of the names of William and Richard within the descendent Graves' families.
The authors believe that the foregoing analysis clearly demonstrates that the names of William and Richard occurred within the descendent Graves' families many times more frequently than within the random population sample. In fact it is believed that such high frequency of the occurrence of these names would only occur if those names had also occurred within the ancestors of John Graves Sr. within the relatively recent past. Consequently, the authors believe that there is a fairly high degree of probability that John Graves Sr.'s father was named William. Given the presence of William and Ann Graves within the same geographical area as John Graves Sr., and given the matching probable ages of William and Ann Graves with the estimated birth year for John Graves Sr., the authors believe that it is highly likely that William and Ann Graves were the parents of John Graves Sr.
It should be noted that Mrs. Hiden identified this William Graves as the younger son of John Graves, son of Captain Thomas Graves as evidenced by the following quotation:
"In 1659 (Id., p. 274), Peter Foard and Edward Roche patent 640 a. in New Kent County on the n. side of the Mattapony River, and among their headrights are Wm. and Ann Graves. This is most likely the Wm.3 we have been discussing who made a visit to England or to Maryland."
Mrs. Hiden was clearly referring to the same William and Ann Graves whom the authors are positing as the parents of John Graves Sr.1. Let it be said that the authors find Mrs. Hiden's conclusion with regard to the identity of the William and Ann Graves named as headrights by Peter Ford to be plausible, but not probable. Undoubtedly, Mrs. Hiden's conclusion regarding this William Graves' identity was in part predicated on the fact that William Graves, grandson of Captain Thomas Graves, had a daughter named Ann. From this, it might be presumed that that William Graves' wife may also have been named Ann. Ergo, they may have been a match for the persons claimed as headrights by Peter Ford.
The authors do not agree with Mrs. Hiden's conclusion regarding the identity of William and Ann Graves, headrights of Peter Ford. This disagreement is predicated on several bases:
Based on the foregoing facts about William Graves3, it seems very unlikely that he would have been the person claimed as a headright by Peter Ford in 1658. Whereas, William and Ann Graves, headrights claimed by Peter Ford, were of the appropriate age and transported to the exact geographic area where one might expect to find the ancestors of John Graves1. Consequently, contrary to Mrs. Hiden's contention, the authors are inclined to believe that William and Ann Graves, headrights claimed by Peter Ford, were not William Graves3 and his wife or daughter, but rather were wholly unconnected to York County and were new immigrants just arriving in the Colony.
One further argument in favor of William and Ann Graves having been the parents of John Graves1 may be found in the Northamptonshire Greaves (Genealogy No. 47 on GFA web site) family lineage from whence the GFA DNA testing indicates as the origins of John Graves1. This genealogy begins with Thomas Greaves, born about 1535 and Joan [lnu] with four recorded sons: William, John, Robert and Stephen. Given the dates of birth of the males among the descendants of this family, the 3rd generation represents the most likely point of origin for John Graves1' [Greaves] father. For whatever reason, there appears to have been descendants named "William" in virtually every branch of this Greaves family through the 5th generation. Additionally, it should be noted that the second and third most frequently occurring given names for male offspring were John and Thomas, followed by Stephen and Robert to a much lesser degree. There were only scarce occurrences of the given name of Richard.
The predominantly high frequency of occurrence of the given name of William within this Northamptonshire family of Greaves continued through the 8th generation. The authors believe that the inordinately high frequency of occurrence of the names of John, Thomas and William within both the Northamptonshire Greaves families and within the John Graves1 families presents a very strong correlation between these families, DNA testing aside. Moreover, the authors believe the high frequency of occurrence of the given name of William within the Northamptonshire Greaves families provides strong support for the probability of William and Ann Graves having been the parents of John Graves1
It is recognized that many of these John Graves1 descendant families were rather large with five or more sons, and that names must be given to those sons. However, the large numbers of male offspring alone, which might otherwise suggest a random assignment of names to some of these offspring, cannot account for such high frequency of occurrence of the name of William. In one instance the name of William was given to a first born son with no evidence of William emanating from the maternal branch and in other instances to the second or third born son. The honor given to the naming of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd born males was usually reserved as a tribute to a direct lineage male in the paternal branches, hence within the lineages of this Graves we see a frequent recurrence of the names of John, Thomas and William occurring in that status level. The recurrence of John and Thomas is understandable, given the names of the known sons of John Graves Sr. However, the recurrence and frequency of the name William has no known previously established connection in the John Graves1 family, except when traced to the Northanptonshire Greaves families. The authors believe this to be strong evidence supporting the possibility that the father of John Graves Sr. was in fact, William Graves, the headright of Peter Ford.
There was one other unique Christian name noted within the descendents of John Graves Sr., which bears mention. Although not with anything like the frequencies of John, Thomas and William, there was an instance of the name “Lewis” listed as follows:
Lewis is certainly not a traditional Christian name, and is more typically associated with a surname. In the records that were presented as candidates in support of scenario No. 2.2 there was a record in a patent filed by John Lewis Jr. in 1663 for 1700 acres near the head of Poropotank swamp, which included a headright for Simeon Groves. While it initially occurred to the authors that Simeon Groves might have been a candidate for a John Graves ancestor, that notion was later dismissed in favor of William Graves, for all of the above stated reasons. Yet, it should not be ignored that the Lewis family had established a long-standing presence along upper Poropotank Creek in an area that abutted the so-called Grayes Plantation. Although Grayes Plantation was not specifically mentioned in John Lewis Jr.’s patent, there were references to abutting properties of Mr. Major [presumably Richard Major], Pepetico Creek, Coales Branch and Thomas Hankes, all of which had connections to Grayes Plantation.
If it was either William Graves or John Graves Sr. who was established on Grayes Plantation in close proximity to the Lewis holdings, this could explain the occurrence of the name of “Lewis” within a few later generations of the John Graves family. The spouses of both John Graves Sr.1 and Thomas Graves6 are unknown. It is possible that one of these spouses were descended from the John Lewis family, members of which [Zachary Lewis, etal.] settled in Spotsylvania, Orange and Culpepper Counties around the same time that descendants of John Graves Sr.1 had an established presence in those counties.
This concludes the search for the possible ancestry of John Graves Sr.1. The authors are inclined to believe that John Graves Sr. was the son of William and Ann Graves, that he was the owner and operator of Graves Ferry across the York and Pamunkey Rivers between about 1703 and 1730, and that he finally relocated to Spotsylvania County in [possibly with his son, John Graves Jr. in 1729] to be nearer his sons and grandchildren where he likely died shortly after 1737.
In order to trace the movements of members of the John Graves Sr.1 family after about 1713, it is important to understand the formation acts which further subdivided King and Queen and Rappahannock Counties during the first half of the 18th Century. Following is a listing of key County formations which affect the records related to John Graves Sr.'s family and other Graves ancestors in this same region.
In addition to understanding the timeframes for the formation of the various counties which emanated from New Kent, King and Queen and Essex Counties, it is also important to know the identity and whereabouts of other branches of Graves families within this same vicinity of Spotsylvania County from about 1700 forward. In addition to the John Graves Sr.1 family, there were two other Graves family branches within the general vicinity of Spotsylvania County during this same time period: (1) descendants of Francis Graves Sr.1 [of Essex County] and (2) descendants of Thomas Graves1 [of Abbingdon Parish, Gloucester]. Before identifying the specific descendants of these two Graves family branches who settled in the general vicinity of Spotsylvania County, let it be said that GFA DNA testing has shown that none of these families had any shared ancestry either among themselves or with Captain Thomas Graves, although earlier genealogical researchers had identified both Francis Graves Sr.1 and Thomas Graves1 as having been sons of Captain Thomas Graves. Those same researchers had identified John Graves Sr.1 as also having descended from Captain Thomas Graves through Thomas Graves1. As already stated hereinbefore, DNA testing has proven no direct ancestral connection of John Graves Sr.1 to Captain Thomas Graves, but rather to a Greaves family of Northamptonshire, England.
John Graves4, husband of Susannah Dicken is the one person that actually settled in Spotsylvania County, who has introduced the greatest amount of confusion with John Graves Sr.1 and his family members. That John Graves4 was descended from the person previously described as Thomas Graves1 of Gloucester County. The ancestry of John Graves4 is presented below as excerpts taken from GFA Genealogy No. 169.
"Thomas Graves (3) by some accounts was born about 1617, probably in England. He died about 1675 in Gloucester Co., Va., and left his land to his sons Thomas, Jeffrey and William. He settled in Gloucester Co., Va., and acquired large tracts of land there, part of which was granted in 1657. He patented 53 acres and later 240 acres in Gloucester Co., also 300 acres in Lancaster Co., Va. He was known as "Thomas Graves, Sr. of Timberneck Creek, Gloucester Co., planter." The name of his wife is not known, although it is believed to be Elizabeth (or Katherine). (R‑915)
Children - Graves
+13. Thomas Graves, b.c. 1639, m(1) Mary ‑‑‑‑‑‑, before 1677, m(2) Elizabeth ‑‑‑‑‑‑.
+14. Jeffrey Graves, m. Dorothy ‑‑‑‑‑‑, before 1680.
+15. William Graves, m. Mary ‑‑‑‑‑‑, by 1686.
16. Mary Graves (given by John Card Graves, but not by most other sources).
CHILDREN OF THOMAS GRAVES (3)
Thomas Graves (13) was born about 1639. His death date is unknown. He was still living in 1707 when he had lot no. 1 in the new town of Gloucester. He first married Mary ‑‑‑‑‑‑ before 1677 (possibly about 1669). They lived in Abingdon Parish, Gloucester Co., Va.
He and his brother Jeffrey inherited large tracts of land which their father had patented. This land was beyond the head of Timberneck Creek, and between Severn and the Indian Road. As part of their inheritance, they also received a tract of 400 acres in Abingdon Parish on 6 March 1675/6. Thomas had other large grants in Westmoreland and Gloucester counties.
He married second Elizabeth ‑‑‑‑‑‑. The christening of all the children listed below was recorded in the records of St. Peter's Church, Abingdon Parish. (R‑915)
Children - Graves, by Mary ‑‑‑‑‑‑
+41. John Graves, christened 1677, m. Rebecca ‑‑‑‑‑‑, probably d. by 1716.
+42. Robert Graves, born or christened 4 Feb. 1682/3, m. Mary ‑‑‑‑‑‑.
43. Mary Graves, christened 19 Aug. 1685 (or 1674?).
Children - Graves, by Elizabeth ‑‑‑‑‑‑
44. Frances Graves, b. 1698.
Jeffrey Graves (14) married Dorothy ‑‑‑‑‑‑ before 1680. They lived in Abingdon Parish, Gloucester Co., Va. He and his brother Thomas had the several grants of land mentioned above. (R‑915)
Children - Graves
45. Elizabeth Graves, b. 21 May 1680, probably died shortly after birth, although this could have been a birth date and the date for the second Elizabeth could have been the bapt. date for the same child.
46. Elizabeth Graves, b. 15 May 1681.
+47. Jeffrey Graves, b. 24 May 1683, m. Elizabeth ‑‑‑‑‑‑.
48. Sarah Graves, baptized 1 July 1688.
William Graves (15) married Mary ‑‑‑‑‑‑. They lived in Abingdon Parish, Gloucester Co., Va. The baptisms of all the following children were recorded in the records of St. Peter's Church, Abingdon Parish. The gap in the baptismal dates of the following children is suspicious, but perhaps the family was not of the parish from 1689 to 1700. (R‑14, R‑915)
Children - Graves
49. John Graves, bapt. 26 Dec. 1686, d. early.
+50. William Graves, bapt. 29 April 1688, m. Martha (or Elizabeth?) ‑‑‑‑‑‑, d. by Oct. 1756.
51. John Graves, bapt. 5 June 1689, m. Elizabeth ‑‑‑‑‑‑.
52. Benjamin Graves, bapt. 28 April 1700.
53. Rebecca Graves, bapt. 27 Sept. 1702.
54. Robert Graves, bapt. 4 Feb. 1704.
55. Susanna Graves, bapt. 6 April 1707.
+56. Edmund Graves, bapt. 4 Jan. 1709, married.
CHILDREN OF THOMAS GRAVES (13)
John Graves (41) was christened 1677 in St. Peter's Church, Abingdon Parish, Gloucester Co., Va. The most likely death date for John is by 1716, since a Rebecca Graves appears in the Essex Co., Va. estate settlement of Richard Brecknell in 1716 (not as an heir). No other Rebecca is known to fit this circumstance other than the wife of John. The payment to her for some debt indicates she was either single or a widow.
[The death date of 1747 given by John Card Graves is for John’s son, John Graves (#104). A death date of 1737 (from Mrs. Ethel Taylor) is from Spotsylvania Co. records, where a John Graves, very ancient, was exempt from taxes in 1737. This was John Graves (genealogy 270).]
John married Rebecca ‑‑‑‑‑‑. She probably survived her husband, as indicated in the first paragraph. The children listed below plus a daughter Elizabeth were named by John Card Graves (R‑915). Charles Hughes Hamlin (The Graves Newsletter, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 4-6, and vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 2-5) agreed with John Card Graves, except that he did not list Elizabeth. (R‑915)
Children - Graves
103. Rebecca Graves, bapt. 21 Jan. 1704.
+104. John Graves, bapt. 9 March 1706, m. Susannah Dicken, 22 Nov. 1732, d. 30 March-2 June 1747.
105. Edward Graves, b. 13 March 1709, m. Elizabeth Hollis, 7 April 1732. All dates from Abingdon Parish register.
Robert Graves (42) was born or christened 4 Feb. 1682/3 in St. Peter's Church, Abingdon Parish, Gloucester Co., Va. He married Mary ‑‑‑‑‑‑. They lived in King and Queen Co., Va. (R‑915) [AUTHORS' NOTE: If this birth date is reasonably accurate for this Robert Graves, then it seems highly unlikely that he could have been the Robert Graves reported in the 1704 Quit Rents with 150 acres in King and Queen County. He would have just turned 21 years old in Feb1704, which does not seem to allow a sufficient time period for him to have procured land in King and Queen County in that same year. The authors believe it more likely that the Robert Graves, who appeared in the 1704 Quit Rents in King and Queen County, was actually a kinsman of John Graves Sr.1. Since exact dates of birth are given for Robert Graves' wife and children, within one of them (Thomas Graves) having been noted as from the records of Abingdon Parish, Gloucester after 1704, it would appear that this Robert Graves continued to live in Gloucester County after 1704.]
Children - Graves
+106. Thomas Graves, b. 19 Sept. 1714, m. Lucy ‑‑‑‑‑‑.
107. Robert Graves, bapt. 14 Jan. 1717.
108. James Graves, bapt. 4 Oct. 1724. It was previously thought that this might be the James Graves who married Mary Copeland and died in Lincoln Co., Ga. However, there is no known documentation for this, and this has been proven not possible as a result of DNA testing.
CHILDREN OF JOHN GRAVES (41) AND REBECCA ------
John Graves (104) was born in 1706 in Abingdon Parish, Gloucester Co., VA, was baptized 9 March 1706 in Abingdon Parish, and died between 30 March 1747 (date of his will) and 2 June 1747 (date of probate in Spotsylvania Co., VA). He married Susannah Dicken on 22 Nov. 1732. She was probably a daughter of Isaac Dicken. She was born 14 June 1714, and died in 1784 in Culpeper Co., VA. After John died, she married Henry Chiles. Henry had first been married to Mercy Webb.
In an article by Mrs. P. W. Hiden, “The Graves Family of Essex Co.”, William & Mary Quarterly, vol. 16, second series, 1936, pages 650-668, she wrote on page 657: “About 1922, the late Gen. John Card Graves, of Buffalo, N.Y., gave the writer dates of birth and marriage of John4 Graves and his wife, Susanna Dicken, with names and dates of birth of their children. This data had been secured for him by the late Mr. R. A. Brock about 1894 and its source was not given. Since, however, these dates have been corroborated by different branches of the family, it is assumed they are from John4 Graves’s own Bible and they will be used in this article.”
“According to this, John4 Graves, b. in St. George’s Par., Spotsylvania Co., Dec. 10, 1712, d. Mar. 30, 1747, married on Nov. 22, 1732, Susanna Dicken, b. June 14, 1714. A patent error is seen in speaking of St. George’s Par. some nine years before its creation, but most likely the meaning of the statement is that he was born in St. Ann’s from which St. Mary’s was formed, St. Mary’s including that part of Essex which later lay in Spotsylvania and became St. George’s Parish.” If the 1712 date were correct, then John would be descended from Thomas1, Francis2, Thomas3, John4. However, in an article by Charles Hughes Hamlin, The Virginia Gazette, Williamsburg, VA, 28 Aug. 1959 and 4 Sept. 1959, Mr. Hamlin disagreed with Mrs. Hiden’s conclusions and gave a very reasoned argument for the lineage given here. Mr. Hamlin’s article can be seen in the Appendix. In addition, DNA testing has shown that John Graves is not descended from Francis Graves, but has instead confirmed the descent given here. (R‑5, R‑14, R‑907)
Children - Graves
+215. Thomas Graves, b. 14 Nov. 1733, m. Sarah Delaney, c. 1752, d. 1810.
216. Rebecca Graves, b. 4 Sept. 1735. Died young.
+217. John Graves, b. 19 Dec. 1737, m. Ann Rice, 30 Nov. 1760, d. 8 Dec. 1825.
+218. Isaac Graves, b. 2 Sept. 1741, m(1) Mildred McWilliams, m(2) Elizabeth Cowherd, 1772, m(3) Jemima Holliday, c. 1791, d. 1818.
+219. Jemima Graves, b. 21 March 1743/4, m. James Chiles, by 1764.
+220. Edward Graves, b. 19 Aug. 1746, m. Sarah Rice, c. 1769, d. Feb. 1832.
The foregoing genealogical analysis extracted from Genealogy No. 169 on the GFA site seems to conclude that the lineage of the John Graves4, who married Susannah Dicken, originated from Thomas Graves Sr.1 [of unknown ancestry and formerly known as Thomas Graves Jr.], who first appeared in Gloucester County near Timberneck Creek in 1657. Using that Thomas Graves [Thomas Graves1] as the point of beginning for this line, then this John Graves4 lineage would be as follows: Thomas Graves1, Thomas Graves2, John Graves3, John Graves4.
The other Graves family that lived within the general vicinity of Spotsylvania County was Francis Graves Sr.1 and his descendants. Following is a brief genealogy of the Francis Graves Sr. family excerpted from Genealogy No. 220 on the GFA website entitled "Descendants of Francis Graves of Gloucester and Essex Counties":
Essex County Graves - Francis Graves was first recorded in Essex County sometime before 1670 where on 10Oct1672 he patented 714 acres on the south side of the River on Gilson's and Hoskin's Creeks adjoining Mr. Beverley's corner. According to Mrs. P. W. Hiden, Francis was born about 1630 and was described as "an orphan of Capt. Thomas Graves, deceased" in 1642. Ms. Hiden gave no citation for this quotation. By 1678 Francis appears to have married a widow, as Francis gifted certain cattle to his step-children: John and Jane Maguffey, and Elizabeth Davenport, presumably the offspring of two previous marriages for Jane. By Aug1691 Francis was dead, as his widow, Jane Maguffey Davenport Graves married a fourth time to John Doughty. In 1694 John Doughty deeded property to his step-sons: Francis Graves Jr., Richard Graves and Thomas Graves. By 1714 Richard Graves had removed from Essex County, and began appearing in the records of Craven County, North Carolina around 1725. Thomas Graves and Francis Graves Jr. continued to live in Essex County for the remainder of their lives where they frequently appeared in records in association with Reeves, Reynolds, Wallers, Hipkins, Colemans, Streshleys, Pamplins, Roanes and Upshaws.
William Graves, the only son of Francis Graves Jr. appears to have lived on a part of his father's land, which is described in land records as being partly in Essex County and partly in Caroline County, being situated on branches of Cockleshell Creek. No reference could be found for Cockleshell Creek on any maps, past or present, but it is believed to have been a tributary of Occupacia Creek at its headwaters near the corner where Caroline, Essex and King and Queen Counties join. It appears that William Graves left only one male heir, Francis Graves, who continued to live near his ancestral lands near Essex/Caroline Counties border on Cockleshell branches. Francis Graves named only four children in his LWT: sons Francis Graves Jr. and Rice Graves and daughters Luca Spearman and Betty Graves.
Thomas Graves, the third and youngest son of Francis and Jane Graves, married Elizabeth Moody and lived his life in Essex/Caroline County area where he died in about 1743. Thomas and Elizabeth Graves are known to have had two sons: Richard and Francis, as they were mentioned in their uncle, Richard Graves' LWT. A third, older son named John Graves has been inferred from the fact that a John Graves was approved to administer the estate of Thomas Graves. Mrs. Hiden mistakenly identified this John Graves as having been the husband of Susannah Dickens and having died, testate on 30Mar1747 in Spotsylvania County. It has subsequently been proven that the John Graves who married Susannah Dicken was actually descended from the Thomas Graves Jr. lineage of Abingdon Parish, Gloucester County, as previously discussed.
Francis Graves1 and his descendants lived for several generations near the headwaters of Occupacia Creek on the border between New Kent County and Rappahannock County. Later, as the county formations evolved, this families place of residency continued in the same general area, but along the border of Essex County with King and Queen County after 1691, then with Spotsylvania County after 1721, and finally with Caroline County after 1728, near the corner with King and Queen County. Most land records showed their holdings near the headwaters of Hoskins Creek or along Cockleshell Creek. Hoskins Creeks still exists on current maps situated between Occupacia Creek and Piscataway Creek, but the stream named Cockleshell Creek has disappeared, and could not be found by the authors to exist on any maps, past or present. By virtue of many of these land transactions involving members of this Graves family and their associates having been reported as abutting or being formerly part of patents to Robert Beverley or his son, Harry Beverley, these properties can be pinpointed to within a few miles near the headwaters of present day Mountain Landing Creek near the junction of State Routes 627 and 629.
Because of the proximity of this family to the border between Caroline and Essex Counties, some of the transactions involving the family or their associates spilled over into the nearby counties of Spotsylvania, King and Queen, Caroline and King William. The close geographic proximity of the Francis Graves1 family to the John Graves Sr.1 in upper King and Queen County (later Caroline) and lower Essex County leaves the impression that there may have been some connection between these families. However, the DNA testing performed by the GFA seems to prove that the Francis Graves1 and John Graves Sr.1 lineages originate from two separate branches of Graves/Greaves in England. Consequently, the close geographic proximity and contemporaneous beginnings of these families in the Virginia colony must be considered pure coincidence.
An understanding of the history of the County formations surrounding Spotsylvania County is important in order to differentiate between the various historical records associated with persons named Graves found in and around Spotsylvania County in the 18th Century. Records found for a person in one County at one point in time and then in another County at a later date does not necessarily signify that that person has changed locations, but that the County boundaries may have changed locations. There were two particular land records which have become the linchpin for establishing the kinship between John Graves Sr.1 and his sons: John Graves Jr.2 and Thomas Graves2, namely the 100 acre and 400 acre tracts of Cohoke sunken ground, purchased by John Graves Sr.1 from John Claybourn. The abstracts and analyses of these two tracts are reiterated hereinafter, in order to set the stage for the migration of this branch of the Graves family into Spotsylvania County.
This was the first record found for John Graves Jr2. The fact that he witnessed this deed for his father suggests that he had already reached his majority, thus giving him a date of birth before 23Jan1685.
This record showed John Graves Sr.1 assigning all rights in the 100 acres he had acquired through purchase from John Claybourne Jr. on 6May1704 to his son, John Graves Jr2. It has been concluded by Mrs. P. W. Hiden, etal., that John Graves Jr. must have been at least 21 years old on the date of this deed recording in March 1706/7. Such conclusion is reasonable as it was extremely rare that a parent would make a gift deed of real estate to a minor child while the parent was still in the prime of their life. The authors believe it entirely possible that John Graves Jr2. may have already reached his majority in 1704 when two John Graves appeared on the quit rent rolls of King and Queen County. It is also conceivable that John Graves Sr.'s other son, Thomas Graves2 may have been the person shown on the 1704 quit rents in King William County with 100 acres. If so, this would indicate that Thomas Graves2 had also reached his majority by that date. No record could be found for this 100 acres in ownership of Thomas Graves, but when he was recorded purchasing 170 acres in Spotsylvania County on 3Feb1727 from Lawrence Franklyn, he was reported as being a planter from that same County. This suggests that Thomas Graves2 was already established as a planter in that region, probably already having owned land.
Sorting out the various records associated with members of the Graves families in and around Spotsylvania during the 18th Century is a tricky undertaking and requires close attention to place names, stated or implied relationships and the names of the myriad allied parties contained in those records. Of those records she cited, Mrs. P. W. Hiden has done an admirable job of identifying most of the kinships and relationships of the various parties recorded therein. The following records and associated analyses expand upon Mrs. Hiden's work, thereby providing a more comprehensive view into the 2nd and 3rd generations of the John Graves Sr.1 families from whence Mary Graves, wife of Valentine Bostick, emanated. Before launching into an analysis of the myriad records associated with the various members of the Graves family in and near Spotsylvania County, let it be said that the authors have found evidence in many of these records which link back to one general geographic region, an area arrayed along a northerly tributary of the Northanna River known as East Northeast Branch. The linkage to this region has been drawn from the various and sundry names associated with land transactions either directly or indirectly involving persons named "Graves".
First, a look at the geography of the area of King William County, which ultimately became Spotsylvania County in 1721 will be helpful in sorting out the probable placement of relevant land patents and deeds in and around Spotsylvania County. Figure 4A-5 provides a map of Spotsylvania County showing major streams, roads, landmarks and land ownerships as they appeared in 1863. Although one might expect that most of the land ownerships would have changed over the intervening 141 years that elapsed after the formation of Spotsylvania County, it is surprising to see how many of the relevant names had survived. For example, the 1863 map still shows listings for Col. Waller, Waller's Tavern, Waller's Meeting House, Mrs. Chiles, Arnold's Run, Davenport's Bridge, Wigglesworth, Smith, Holladay, Herndon, Lewis and Coleman; all names that appear in the records associated with the Graves. In fact, two instances of landownership by persons named Graves still appeared on this map, one of which coincided with the presumed location of land acquired by John Graves4. What is particularly noteworthy is the fact that most of these relevant names appear in the lower western end of the County adjacent to Northanna River near East Northeast Branch and Arnold's Run. Consequently, it is reasonable to surmise that many of these land records pertaining to Graves were also likely to have been situated in that same area of western Spotsylvania County.
The following is a listing and discussion of all of the records found for or associated with members of the Graves family in and around Spotsylvania County during the lifetime of Thomas Graves2.
Keep in mind that King William County in 1713 consisted of all that territory bounded by the Mattapony River on the east and the Pamunky River on the west, including part of the area that would become Spotsylvania County in 1721. Embedded in this description is a vagueness that must be reconciled. "Mattapony River on the east" is a fairly definite boundary until the River branches into its many forks at its upper reaches. These branches fan out and encompass a relatively large area which comprises territory greater than 50% of Spotsylvania County. Absent anything more definitive and for the purposes of this analysis the authors will assume that all the territory east of the south fork (Ta River) of the Mattapony was considered to be part of King and Queen County.
The only other John Graves thought to be living in this general area, who might have borne the appellation of Jr. was John Graves4 of Gloucester County who married Susannah Dicken. However, that John Graves was recorded as baptized at Abingdon Parish in Mar1706, so he could not have been this John Graves.
The authors feel there is little doubt but that this John Graves was John Graves Jr.2, son of John Graves Sr.1 of Northamptonshire.
After a thorough search of patent records the authors found only one probable candidate for the William Smith from whom John Graves Jr.2 purchased this land, that being the son of Lawrence Smith and brother of Lawrence Jr., Augustine, Charles and John Smith. The fact that the land involved in this transaction had been entailed suggests that it had come to William Smith through inheritance. NOTE: "At common law, fee tail or entail is an estate of inheritance in real property which cannot be sold, devised by will, or otherwise alienated by the owner, but which passes by operation of law to the owner's heirs upon his death." Such inheritance would likely have been from William Smith's father, Lawrence Smith, who is known to have taken out numerous patents during his lifetime. Lawrence Smith's patents were generally located near his home in Abingdon Parish, Gloucester County, or along the south side of the upper Rappahannock River in an area that became Essex and King and Queen County. It appears that William Smith was attempting to break the entail, so that he might sell this land to John Graves Jr.2.
Prior to 1713 William Smith appeared as the patentee on only two patents listed as follows:
Š 21Apr1684 Augustine Smith and William Smith filed patent for 6,500 acres in Rappahannock and New Kent County, adjacent 4,600 acres of Capt. Lawrence Smith; by Beaver Dams, near head of Reedy Branch; granted to Capt. Lawrence Smith and Capt. Robert Beverley on 16Nov1674, deserted.
NOTE: Capt. Lawrence Smith didn't die until about 1700, so it would not appear that Augustine and William Smith had inherited this tract, but filed this patent in their own right. However, they did not retain this tract for very long, as Robert Beverley was granted a patent for this same tract a few years later.
Š Essex County Wills and Deeds, 1711-1714, p. 100 - Deed of Gift. William Smith of the Parish of Abbington in the County of Gloucester, Gentleman, gives "for and in consideration of the natural affection and brotherly love which I have and bear unto my well beloved brother, Augustine Smith of the parish of St. Ann, Essex County, 920 acres, this land having been patented by William Smith for his brother, Augustine, due to his being remote from the General Court and he paying the expenses. This land lying on branches of Occupation Run and branches of Cockle Shell Creek and bounded by land of Richard Robinson and the line of Mrs. Beth Gilson, an Indian Path, etc. Said patent granted 6Apr1712. Recorded 12Feb1712/3.
Although these were the only patents found by the authors in the name of William Smith prior to 1713, his
name did begin appearing as a land owner after 1699 as evidenced in the following patent records:
Š On 6Jun1699 William Leigh and Benjamin Harrison of James City County received patent for 3,474 acres in King and Queen and Essex County; beginning at mouth of a great branch of the Mattapony Creek [sic]; abutting William Smith, etal..."
The location of this patent would appear to have been on the north side of the Mattapony, by virtue of its having been positioned within both King and Queen County and Essex County. Lawrence Smith is known to have received patents along the south side of the upper Rappahannock River just below Fredericksburg, in partnership with Robert Taliafero and in his own name. It is conceivable that this patent may have abutted Lawrence Smith's patents along Massaponax River [Creek] on the upper Rappahannock, and that William Smith may have inherited part or all of that land. The fact that William Smith suddenly began to appear as a land owner in this area suggests that Lawrence Smith may have died earlier than reported, or that his father may have made a gift deed of part of his lands to his son, William.
Š On 24Apr1703 James Taylor and Thomas Pettis received patent for 576 acres in St. Stephen's Parish, King and Queen County on branches of the Mattapony Swamp [sic]; abutting Captain William Smith, by path from William Rickett's, to Indian Towne along Baylor's Line..."
This tract is described as having been in St. Stephen's Parish, King and Queen County on branches of Mattapony swamp. The authors believe that "Mattapony Swamp" really was actually in reference to "the freshes" or upper branches of the Mattapony River, within the area above Snow Creek that would become Spotsylvania County after 1721. King William County had just been formed in 1702, and encompassed the area between the Mattapony and Pamunkey Rivers. It is probable that the south branch of the Mattapony River, or the Ta River, as illustrated in Figure 4A-5 constituted the northwesterly boundary between King and Queen and King William County. Consequently, the area between the upper branches of the Mattapony would have fallen within King and Queen County in 1703. Depending upon the precise location of the tracts patented by Lawrence Smith along the upper reaches of the Rappahannock River, the abutting land in ownership of Captain William Smith probably was obtained through inheritance of his father's lands. Lawrence Smith died around 1700, but his LWT has gone missing. Presumably Lawrence Smith bequeathed his land along the Massaponax to his son(s).
It should be noted that the Thomas Pettis who appeared in this patent appeared in Road Orders on the western side of Spotsylvania County along the Northanna River, and that members of the Graves and Pettis families intermarried.
Š On 24Apr1703 Thomas Pettis received patent for 56 acres in St. Stephen's Parish, King and Queen County; abutting Captain William Smith, James Caudle and Thomas Demox."
Š On 24Apr1703 John Pigg received patent for 1,000 acres in King and Queen County in the freshes of the Mattapony River; beginning at a path from William Rickett's house, to the Indian Towne, to Captain William Smith, Mariner...to north side of the Ridge Path, dividing this land from James Taylor..."
It should be noted that John and Edward Pigg received several patents in this area among the branches of the Mattapony River, which were associated with later patents involving members of the Graves family.
The various William Smiths referenced as an adjacent land owner in the foregoing patents are believed to have been one and the same person, namely the son of Lawrence Smith. Since no patents could be located for grants directly to William Smith within the area of the branches of the Mattapony River, he is believed to have inherited this land from his father, Lawrence Smith, who probably died around 1700. The parcel for which William Smith sought to break the entail for its sale to John Graves Jr.2 is believed to have been part of his inheritance from the estate of his father, Lawrence Smith.
In the 1704 Quit Rents Austin [Augustine] Smith was reported with 4,000 acres in King and Queen County, whereas, William Smith was reported with 150 acres and a Quarter of 3,000 acres in Essex County. There was also reported in the Quit Rents "Smiths in Bristol Quarter" of 2,800 acres in King and Queen County, which may have originated from patent(s) granted to Lawrence Smith, and probably was in ownership of his son, Captain William Smith. Because of this "Bristol Quarter" lands having been in King and Queen County, it seems probable that it was a portion of this land that was being acquired by John Graves Jr.2 in 1713. The fact that John Graves Jr.2 reported himself as being of King and Queen County on 24May1729 when he traded the 100 acres of Cohoke sunken ground in King William County for 200 acres in Spotsylvania County from Thomas Gambrill, suggests that John Graves Jr.2 might have had his main residence in King and Queen County, even though he had acquired this tract from William Smith in 1713, probably located in future Spotsylvania County. It seems probable to the authors that John Graves Jr.2 and his father, John Graves Sr.1 may have continued to live at Graves Landing on the York River below West Point and to continue to operate Graves' Ferry at least until 1729. It is conceivable that both John Graves Sr.1 and John Graves Jr.2 may have relocated together to Spotsylvania County near the Northanna River, upon John Jr.'s acquisition of the 200 acres in 1729. Later records will show that John Graves Jr.'s brother, Thomas Graves had already acquired land in Spotsylvania County years earlier.
February 3, 1725. Lawrence x Franklyn of Spts. Co. to Thomas Graves of the same Co., planter. 3500 lbs. tob., 170 a. of land adjoining the land of Harry Beverley, etc. Witnesses: P. Rogers, Edward Pigg, John Foster. Rec. March 1, 1725-6.
This is believed to have been Thomas Graves2, son of John Graves Sr.1. Although this was the first record found for Thomas Graves2 in Spotsylvania County, the authors believe that he had been a resident of this area for over 20 years when he purchased this tract in 1725. This belief is predicated on two facts:
i. He referred to himself as a "planter of the same County", suggesting that he had been in residence in Spotsylvania County area for several years prior to this transaction, and in order to be identified as a planter, he probably would have previously owned land in the area.
ii. A Thomas Graves was reported with 100 acres in King William County on the 1704 Quit Rents. There is no other Thomas Graves known to have been living in this area at that time. Most researchers report Thomas Graves2 to have been born around 1690, but the authors believe he likely was the Thomas Graves shown with 100 acres on the 1704 Quit Rents, making him born before 1683.
The authors believe this tract was situated between East Northeast Branch of the Northanna River and the south branch (Ta River) of the Mattapony River. This belief is predicated in part on the fact that the land purchase was from Lawrence Franklyn, adjoining land owned by Robert Beverley and was witnessed by Peter Rogers, Edward Pigg and John Foster. Four of these persons appeared in the Road Orders abstracted below:
In considering the approximate area bounded by any given Road Order, it is necessary to understand that the County Justices divided the County into precincts, and that an Overseer or Surveyor of a road within a precinct was empowered to muster a workforce comprised of the "tithables" within the precinct as labor for the construction and maintenance of the subject road. In this instance the road was described as extending from "the mouth of East Northeast [Branch] to the head of the Mattapony River toward Germanna". And the tithables were to comprise the landowners between the Northanna River and the Mattapony. Listed among these tithables were Edward Franklyn, Lawrence Franklyn, John Foster, Harry Beverley and John Pigg (brother of Edward Pigg). Given that several of the persons named in association with Thomas Graves2' land purchase are identified as having lands within this precinct near the East Northeast Branch of the Northanna River, it is a virtual certainty that Thomas Graves2 new tract was located in this same area within a few miles either side of East Northeast Branch.
A further clue to the probable location of this tract may be found in the histories of two of the witnesses to this deed: Edward Pigg and P. [Peter] Rogers.
Edward Pigg and Henry Pigg are believed to have been brothers, just as John Rogers and Peter Rogers are also believed to have been brothers. The John Pigg listed in the foregoing patents may have also been a brother of Edward and Henry, or may have been their father. The Edward Pigg and P. [Peter] Rogers who witnessed this deed for conveying 170 acres to Thomas Graves are believed to have been the same Edward Pigg and Peter Rogers named in the foregoing list of patents. All of the patents are believed to have been in the same general area "south of the northernmost branches of Mattapony River about 10 to 15 miles west of Fredericksburg. The authors interpret this description to mean that these tracts were south of the south branch [Ta River, which would have been one of the several northernmost branches] of the Mattapony, between the Ta River and Northanna River, generally in the vicinity of East Northeast Branch.
Note the reference to Captain William Smith, mariner, as an adjacent land owner to the patent filed by John Pigg for 1,000 acres in the freshes the Mattapony River. This probably was the location of the land from which John Graves Jr.2 purchased a tract in 1713. If that were the case, then it would appear the brothers: John Graves Jr.2 and Thomas Graves2 had both purchased land within the same general area near East Northeast Branch.
The final evidence offered are the following Road Orders which clearly show Thomas Graves2 as overseer of a road leading from a bridge on East Northeast Branch to the northeast to Key's Mill. This description clearly places Thomas Graves2' land being between East Northeast Branch and the Ta River.
Note that Henry Chiles married the widow of John Graves4, Susannah Dicken Graves. This suggests that Henry Chiles resided in the same precinct as Thomas Graves2.
This was a pivotal record in establishing the link between John Graves Sr.1 and this John Graves Jr.2. Such connection might have been made circumstantially, based on the appellation of "Jr.", but this record provides a direct and virtually unequivocal linkage to John Graves Sr.1 by virtue of the 100 acres of land located in King William County, presumed to have been the same tract purchased by John Graves Sr.1 from John Claybourne in 1704 and gift deeded to his son, John Graves Jr.2 in 1706. The 200 acres being acquired by John Graves Jr. in Spotsylvania will appear in a later deed connecting John Graves Jr. to his son, Joseph Graves. The fact that this John Graves was still using the appellation of "Jr." in 1729 is clear indication that his father was still living. The authors believe that, because John Graves Jr.2 identified himself as being of King and Queen County, he had remained all those years after 1706 in King and Queen County. Now it appears that John Graves Jr.2 had relocated northward into St. Stephen's Parish, whereas he had previously been reported of Stratton Major parish.
The location of this 200 acre tract is believed to have been within the same general area as the preceding tract purchased by Thomas Graves2 from Lawrence Franklyn, namely between East Northeast Branch and the Ta River. This location is partially established through the following Road Orders:
Š Road Order: 4Nov1724 O.S., Page 30: "Ordered that Thomas Gambrell be discharged from being overseer of the road from the County Line to Rich Neck, and that Edwin Hickman, Gentleman, do serve in Gambrell's stead. Tithables: Augustine Moore's lower Quarter, Capt. Thomas Carr's Quarter, Francis Arnold, William Lob's, John Trusty, Edwin Hickman, Thomas Gambrell, John Gambrell, Capt. William Smith's Quarter and Edward Downes."
The Thomas Gambrell named as overseer in this road order is believed to have been the same Thomas Gambrill with whom John Graves Jr.2 traded parcels in this deed. Note the references to Francis Arnold and Captain William Smith's Quarter, as both of these parties have involvement with members of the Graves family. A geographic feature identified as "Rich Neck" could not be located on any maps, but it is known to have been the site of a 2,000 acre patent in ownership of Augustine Moore (parents: Bernard Moore and Ann Catherine Spotswood), grandson of Governor Spotswood. In the LWT of Augustine Moore dated 20Jan1742/3 he bequeathed 2,000 acres to his son, Thomas Moore, lying in Spotsylvania County and called or known by the name of Rich Neck. The location of this road order is not certain, but probably extended from the Hanover County Line at Northanna River easterly across East Northeast Branch toward the Ta River. This location is supported by the identification of Francis Arnold who lived in this area near Arnold's Run, tributary of East Northeast Branch as shown in Figure -5.
Š Ditto: 4Jul1727, O>S>, Page 175: "On motion of Edwin Hickman, Gentleman, about rebuilding East North East bridge as the late great rains and freshes had carried clean away, it is ordered that William Smith and Edwin Hickman have power..."
This order the following year with Edwin Hickman as overseer, supports the description of the previous road being across the East Northeast Branch toward Mattapony Church on the Po River.
Š Ditto: 5Mar1727/8, O.S., Page 217: "On Petition of Zachery Lewis on behalf of himself and several others the inhabitants of Mattapony and Northanna River...to have a bridge built over the Po River at a ford called Franklin's Ford above Mattapony Church ...ordered that Larkin Chew, William Smith, Edwin Hickman and Henry Goodloe, genltemen..."
The location of this bridge project over the Po River is believed to have been nearby to the Old Court House and Mattapony Church. William Smith was actively involved in the business of this community between the Mattapony and Northanna. Zachary Lewis had future dealings with members of the Graves family.
Š Ditto: 4Jun1728, O.S., Page 233: "On motion of John Waller, he is discharged from being overseer of the road from Mattapony Church to bridge over East Northeast Branch, said road be divided into two precincts, and John Wilkings and Daniel Brown be appointed in his stead: from East Northeast to John Waller's Bridge - Tithables viz: John Waller, Zachary Lewis, John Wilkings, John Wigglesworth, Dennitt Abney Sr., Dennitt Abney Jr., John Smith (possible heir of William Smith), William Dobbs, Daniel Pruett, Robert Baylor's Quarter and Robert Stubblefield..."
This project involved the segment of road between the Po River near the Mattapony Church and the East Northeast Branch. Severally parties are named in this Road Order, who had later dealings with the Graves family, including Colonel John Waller, County Clerk, Zachary Lewis, John Wigglesworth and Robert Stubblefield.
DEED BOOK B 1729-1734
March 2, 1730. John Downer of St. Margarett's Par., Caroline Co., to Thomas Graves of St. Geo. Par., Spts. Co. £20 curr., 400 a. as by patent granted sd. Downer June 16, 1727. Jas. Barbour, James Williams, Thos. Downer. Mar. 2, 1730-1. Ann, wife of John Downer, acknowledged her dower, etc.
First, it is important to note that John Downer was claimed as a headright in the patent granted to Peter Rogers and Edward Pigg described hereinabove and reiterated below:
Š On 16Jun1714 John Rogers, Peter Rogers, Edward Pigg, John York and Thomas Gresham filed a patent for 1,525 acres situated on the south side of the northernmost branches of the Mattapony River, about two miles above Doeg Town (probably same as "Indian Towne", above), including John Downer as a headright.
The fact that John Downer was associated with this earlier patent provides further support to the authors belief that the earlier tract of 170 acres acquired by Thomas Graves was situated in this same general area as the Pigg and Rogers tracts south of the northernmost branches of the Mattapony River.
Next, note that John Downer and Rice Williams jointly filed a patent on 16Dec1714 for 740 acres in a fork of the Mattapony River about 12 miles above the inhabitants of King and Queen County, beginning at Madison's and Pigg's corner, on the south side of the main run [of the Mattapony].
Finally, the patent from which this 400 acres was granted to John Downer is described as follows:
Š On 16Jun1727 John Downer filed a patent for 400 acres situated in St. George's Parish, Spotsylvania County, on north side of Northanna River, beginning at Captain Christopher Smith's [probable heir of Captain William Smith] land, to James Taylor's line, on Thomas Gambrill's line, purchased for 40 schillings.
The associations between John Downer, Edward Pigg and Peter Rogers leaves little doubt that this was Thomas Graves2, the same person who earlier purchased 170 acres from Lawrence Franklin. Further, note that Thomas Grambrill was an adjacent landowner, the same person with whom John Graves Jr.2 traded his Cohoke sunken ground for 200 acres in Spotsylvania County (probably this same property that abutted Downer's tract). This tract being purchased by Thomas Graves2 would appear to have abutted the 200 acres acquired by John Graves Jr.2 from Thomas Gambrill in 1729. Note that Downer paid 40 schillings, whereas Thomas Graves paid ₤20 just three years later.
This is presumed to have been in reference to John Graves Sr.1, since the only other mature John Graveses known to have lived in Spotsylvania County during this time period were John Graves Jr.2 and John Graves4 of Abbingdon Parish, Gloucester County, who had settled in Spotsylvania County in recent years. John Graves4 is recorded in Abbingdon Parish church register as having been baptized on 9Mar1706, and would have been far too young to have filed for relief from taxation due to advanced age. By process of elimination, John Graves Sr.1, who is believed to have been born around 1660-65, is the only person who would meet this description. Virginia Statutes typically provided for relief from taxation after the age of 65 years, so it might be inferred that John Graves Sr.1 was actually born sometime before Jun1762.
DEED BOOK C 1734-1742
Francis x Arnold, for £25 curr. mortgage, 100 a. of land, whereon he now lives, etc., etc., to Thomas Graves, Richard Phillips and John Minor. Dated, June 1, 1741. Witnesses: Thomas Graves, Jr., John Graves. July 7, 1741, Recd.
This Thomas Graves is believed to have been Thomas Graves2, son of John Graves Sr.1, and that the witnesses: Thomas Graves Jr.3 and John Graves3 were his sons. This 100 acre tract is believed to have been situated along Arnold's Run, tributary of East Northeast Branch in the southwest corner of Spotsylvania County, not far from the other tracts acquired by John Graves Jr.2 and Thomas Graves2. This particular tract had a somewhat sordid history in that it was originally part of the estate of Benjamin Arnold, father of Rachel Arnold, wife of Francis Arnold. Benjamin Arnold bequeathed 400 acres situated on both side of Arnold's Run to his granddaughter, Ann, eldest daughter of Francis Arnold and Rachel Arnold sometime around 1722. Since Ann Arnold was not of age, and presuming they had legal claim to this land, Francis Arnold and Rachel Arnold took occupancy and established residency upon the 400 acres. In 1726 George Woodroof, on behalf of Ann Arnold, minor, filed a petition with the Governor's Council to block Francis Arnold and Rachel Arnold from filing a patent on this land in their own right. The Council awarded control over the property to George Woodroof to hold in trust until Ann Arnold reached 21 years. Apparently, in spite of the Council's ruling, Francis and Rachel Arnold continued to occupy their daughter's property until their deaths but never held title except for the subject 100 acres, which was conveyed by gift deed to Francis and Rachel by their son-in-law, William Davenport, husband of Ann Arnold, in 1736.
The ancestry of Francis Arnold is not known with certainty, but many researchers believe him to have been a first cousin of his wife, Rachel, having been a son of one of Benjamin Arnold's brothers. Francis Arnold first appeared in colonial records as a headright on a patent awarded Reuben Welch on 20Feb1719 for 3,273 acres in Essex County in right of transport of 66 persons, including Francis Arnold, William Davenport, etal. The William Davenport claimed as a headright along with Francis Arnold is believed to have been the son of Martin Davenport, and future husband of Ann Arnold. Ann Davenport, a daughter of Davis Davenport and sister of Martin Davenport, is believed to have been the 2nd wife of Thomas Graves2, the father-in-law of Valentine Bostick. Francis and Rachel Arnold are believed also to have been the parents William Arnold, who married Elizabeth Bostick. Most Bostick family genealogists report Elizabeth Bostick, wife of William Arnold, to have been a daughter of William Bostick. However, the authors have strong reason to believe that Elizabeth Bostick was actually a daughter of Charles Bostick, and sister of Valentine Bostick.
Finally, John Minor is believed to have married Sarah Carr, daughter of Thomas Carr and Mary Dabney. The Minors, Carrs and Dabneys were all neighbors of Thomas Graves and John Graves Jr. in the area between Northanna River and the Ta River. The following are a couple of Road Orders which interconnect several of these families in this area:
Š Ditto: 4Nov1724, O.S., Page 30: "Ordered that Thomas Gambrell be discharged from being overseer of road from County Line to Rich Neck, Edwin Hickman in his stead. Tithables viz: Augustine Moore's lower Quarter, Capt. Thomas Carr's Quarter, Francis Arnold, William Lobs, John Trusty, Edwin Hickman, Thomas Gambrell, John Grambrell, Capt. William Smith's Quarter and Edward Downes..."
Š Road Orders: 6Oct1724, O.S., Page 17: On petition of William Russell in behalf of himself and other inhabitants of County to have a road from Franklyn's Road to the new chapel [Mattapony Church] now being built, and so from thence to East North East Bridge is granted...that John Gambrell and Francis Arnold do view and mark out that part from the new church [Mattapony Church] to East North East Bridge..."
DEED BOOK C 1734-1742
Augt. 3, 1741. James Edwards, Senr., of St. John's Par., King William Co., to his son, James Edwards, of same Par. and county. Deed of Gift. 200 a. on Northanna River, in St. Geo. Par., Spts. Co., adjoining lands of Thomas Graves, John Graves and Humphrey Hill, and part of a tract sd. Edwards, Senr., purchased of Richd. Phillips, as by Deeds, June 4, 1734. John Waller, Edmund Waller, Z. Lewis, Henry Pendleton. Augt. 4, 1741.
By virtue of this tract having been previously owned by Richard Phillips, and by Richard Phillips having been one of the three persons involved with John Minor and Thomas Graves2 in the mortgage on the 100 acres for Francis Arnold, Item No. 8, herein above, it is reasonable to think that the adjacent land owners were Thomas Graves2 and John Graves Jr.2, the sons of John Graves Sr.1. The fact that John Graves2 was no longer using the appellation of "Jr." is clear indication that his father was deceased. It should be noted that there were intermarriages between James Edwards (probably Jr.) and the Arnold family as evidenced in the LWT of James Edwards dated 1788.
DEED BOOK D 1742-1751
Jany. 27, 1743. Nicholas x Randolph and Margaret, his wife, of Spts. Co., to John Graves of sd. county. £25 curr. 170 a., part of a tract granted Musick by pat., and by him sold to sd. Randolph. Witnesses, Henry Chiles, Ambrose x Musick, John x Davis. Feby. 7th, 1743. "beginning at a hickory on the east side of Mine Road, upon Wyatt's line..., upon John Sartin's land, thence to a line Old Musick made."
This was unquestionably John Graves4 of Gloucester, as this tract was part of the estate listed in this John Graves4’ LWT dated 30Mar1747, probated in Spotsylvania County 2Jun1747. The LWT only reported 140 acres purchased of Nicholas Randolph, not 170 acres. Further proof of this connection is evidenced by the witness, Henry Chiles, who married Susannah Dicken, widow of this John Graves4. This was the first and only land record known to exist for this John Graves in Spotsylvania County, yet he bequeathed a total of 980 acres in his LWT. Mrs. P. W. Hiden asserted that this John Graves was descended from Francis Graves of Essex County, and proceeded to present a series of records to establish him as the son of Thomas Graves3, grandson of Francis Graves1 of Essex County, culminating with her identification of this John Graves4 as the person whose LWT was dated 30Mar1747, recorded in Spotsylvania County. However, GFA DNA testing has shown that the John Graves, who married Susannah Dicken and left the LWT in 1747 was actually descended from Thomas Graves1 of Gloucester. Consequently, the John Graves who died in Spotsylvnia County in 1747 was incorrectly identified by Mrs. Hiden. It seems apparent that these were two different John Graves. Very little is known of the John Graves4 descended of Francis Graves1, and it seems unlikely that he left any descendents. As for the John Graves4, descended from Thomas Graves1 of Goucester, very little is also known. His birth was captured in the baptismal records of Abbingdon Parish on 9Mar1706. After that date he is virtually unknown until he appeared on this land purchased from Nicholas Randolph on 27Jan1743/4.
The location of this tract is difficult to pinpoint with any degree of certainty, but the authors believe it to have been situated on Plentiful Run, branch of Terry's Run, branch of North Fork Northanna River, near the future boundary of Orange County as illustrated in Figure -5. This location is predicated on several facts based on the reference to "Mine Road", George Musick and John Sartain. George Musick appears to have acquired at least two patents in his lifetime, of which the subject tract is believed to have been a part, abstracted as follows:
Š On 11Jul1719 George Musick received patent for 250 acres located in St. John's Parish, King William County; on NW side of May's Run, S. side of the South River [Ta River]..."
Š On 28Sep1728 Thomas Allen and George Musick received patent for unspecified area in St. George's Parish, Spotsylvania County; on branches of Plentiful and Terry's Run.
The size of this grant was unspecified, but likely was for 1,000 acres, as there were dozens of patents filed in this western part of Spotsylvania County on this same date for tracts of 1,000 acres each. Both of these patents to George Musick abutted Major Robert Beverley's Quarter, so they are presumed to have been in the same general area near Plentiful Run.
The reference to Mine Road further helps to situate this property, as there was a major road project ordered to be improved within Spotsylvania County, beginning in 1723. Various elements of this road were the subject of numerous orders issued over the next several years. The Mine Road was to extend from the vicinity of Plentiful Run on the west side of the County, running diagonally across said County to the Rappahannock River at Hazel Run, just downstream of Fredericksburg described as follows:
Š Mine Road Description: From Fredericksville Iron Work to Rappahannock River nigh Fredericksburg, later called the "Mine Road". Divided into segments: Furnace to ridge between Pamunkey and Mattapony, ridge to Ny River and Ny River to Hazel Run.
The reference to the Frederickville Iron Work helps pinpoint the western terminus of Mine Road as having been on Douglas Run, just down river of Terry's Run as illustrated in Figure -5, and described as follows:
Š "Charles Chiswell established the iron-making community of Fredericksville near this point of Douglas Run, a tributary of the North Anna River. The furnace had been in blast for about five years when William Byrd in 1732 toured the site in the company of Chiswell and his iron-master, Robert Durham."
Elements of the Mine Road included major bridges over the Po River, Lewis River and Ny River. Construction of this road was probably motivated by the need to transport iron ore and/or cast products from the Fredericksville Furnace to barges at the wharves below Fredericksburg at the mouth of Hazel Run on the Rappahannock River.
The name of John Sartain [Sartin] also has connections with this part of Spotsylvania County as evidenced in the following patent filed by Colonel John Waller, County Clerk, in 1730:
Š On 11Jan1730 John Waller, Gentleman, filed a patent for 2900 acres in Spotsylvania County, on south side of the Middle River and on branches of East North East [Creek]; adjacent Mr. Edmund Waller, Colonel John Waller, Captain Larkin Chew, Captain Thomas Pettle [Pettis], Mr. William Todd, Mr. Robert Coleman, Major Todd, Mr. Joseph Smith, Mrs. Mary Waller, Mr. Zachariah Lewis, Edward Hardon [Herndon], Thomas Sartain [Sartin], John Sartain [Sartin], Mr. Benjamin Waller, and John Wilkins. 1,000 acres granted to John Waller on 25Apr1726; 1,000 acres granted to John Waller Jr. on 28Sep1728 and reconveyed to John Waller Sr. by deed of L&R on 24Jun1730; 500 acres granted to Phillip Todd 30Jun1726 and conveyed as above; 400 acres granted to John Waller on 21Feb1720.
This patent references numerous land owners known to reside between the Northanna River and the Ta River including: Edmund Waller (son of Col. John Waller), Capt. Thomas Pettis, Robert Coleman, Joseph Smith, Zachary Lewis (husband of Mary Waller, daughter of Col. John Waller), Edward Herndon, Thomas Sartain, John Sartain and Benjamin Waller (son of Col. John Waller); many of whom had interactions with members of the Graves family.
It should be noted that this tract purchased by John Graves4 was situated within about ten miles of the tracts thus far identified as having been procured by Thomas Graves2 and John Graves2. The close geographic proximity of these two seemingly disparate Graves families appears to have been coincidental. It should also be noted that there was a Graves shown on the 1863 map along Plentiful Run, probably a remnant of John Graves4's descendants.
DEED BOOK D 1742-1751
Sept. 4, 1744. Henry Chiles of St. Geo. Par., Spts. Co., planter, and Mercy, his wife, to George Seaton of St. John's Par., King William Co., Gent. £180 curr. 600 a. in St. Geo. Par., Spts. Co., part of a tract granted Henry and John Chiles, as joint tenants, etc. Witnesses, George Morton, William x Sandige, John x Graves. Sept. 4, 1744.
This John Graves is believed to have been John Graves4, based on the involvement of Henry Chiles. Henry Chiles is believed to have been the son of John Chiles and Eleanor Webber. No record could be found for the original grant to John and Henry Chiles, but this land is believed to have been in the same general area as John Graves4' tract near Plentiful Run.
DEED BOOK D 1742-1751
Feby. 21, 1744. George Woodroof of Spts. Co., planter, and Jane, his wife, "for consideration of the natural love and affection they bear unto * * George Woodroof, Junr.," and for sum of £5 curr. 100 a. in Spts. Co. John Minor, George Willson, Thos. x Graves. March 5, 1744.
This is believed to have been Thomas Graves2, son of John Graves Sr.1 by virtue of the involvement of John Minor and George Woodroof. George Woodroof Sr. was the person who filed the petition on behalf of Ann Arnold to protect her interest in the 400 acres bequeathed her by her grandfather, Benjamin Arnold.
DEED BOOK D 1742-1751
Sept. 21, 1745. George Woodroof, Jr., of St. Margaret's Par., Caroline Co., planter, and Ann, his wife, to Thos. Graves of St. Geo. Par., Spts. Co., planter. 200 a. in Spts. Co., "a part of the lands made over to the sd. George Woodruff, Junr., by his father, George Woodroof. Witnesses, Jno. Parrish, Wm. McWilliams, A. Foster. Octr. 1, 1745.
Thomas Graves2, ditto Item 12, above.. This land is believed to have been part of a patent for 380 acres granted to George Woodroof 17Apr1727, described as being on the east side of the East Northeast Branch. Other patents showed this land in close proximity to land owned by: Joseph Temple, Augustine Moore, Dennit Abney, Zachary Lewis, and Captain William Smith. This tract is believed to have been within a couple of miles of the other tracts in possession of Thomas Graves2 and John Graves2, and in the general vicinity of Arnold's Run.
LWT of John Graves, St. George's Parish, dated 30Mar1747, proved 2Jun1747. Witnesses: Joseph Holloway, Benjamin Holloway, B. Lewis and William Webb. Executrix: wife, Susannah; Executors: Joseph Peterson and John Wigglesworth. Legatees: wife Susannah, 140 acres of land purchased of Nicholas Randolph; sons Thomas Graves, 140 acres; Edward Graves, 140 acres; Isaac Graves, 140 acres; John Graves, 140 acres; daughters Rebecca, 140 acres; and Jemima, 140 acres.
This was the LWT of John Graves4, descended of Thomas Graves1 of Gloucester County, who married Susannah Dicken and only recently surfaced in Spotsylvania County in 1743 when he purchased 170 acres from Nicholas Randolph on east side of Plentiful Run in 1743/4.
DEED BOOK D 1742-1751
Decr. 4, 1750. George Woodroof of Spts. Co., Planter, and Jane, his wife, to Rice Graves of sd. County, planter. £10 curr. 100 a. in Spts. Co. Robt. Huddleston, John Smith, James Fox. Dec. 4, 1751.
Rice Graves3 was a son of Thomas Graves2 and Ann Davenport, who married Jane Young. This tract was part of the two patents filed by George Woodroof near Arnold's Run, and would have been situated nearby to his father's land, and that of his uncle, John Graves2.
DEED BOOK E 1751-1761
Oct. 1, 1754. Rice Graves of Spts. Co. to Thomas Graves of same county. 5 shill. curr. 100 a. in Spts. Co. Z. Lewis, Chas. Colson. Oct. 1, 1754.
This is believe to have been Thomas Graves2, the father of Rice Graves3 since the earlier listing for Rice's brother, Thomas Graves3 used the appellation of "Jr.". This tract of 100 acres probably was the same land Rice Graves3 purchased from George Woodruff [Woodroof] in Item No. 15, above.
DEED BOOK E 1751-1761
June 2, 1755. Wm. Waller of Spts. Co., Gent., to Samuel Brown of co. afsd., planter. £12 18s. curr. 92 a. in St. Geo. Par., Spts. Co., part of a tract devised sd. Waller, by the will of his father, Jno. Waller, Gent., Decd., etc. Nicho. Horn, William Smith, Thos. x Graves. June 3, 1755.
The identity of this Thomas Graves is almost certainly Thomas Graves2, son of John Graves Sr.1, given that he did not use the appellation of "Jr.". Thomas Graves2 was still alive and living in Spotsylvania County in 1755, as was his son, Thomas Graves3 Jr. The references to William Waller, Col John Waller, deceased, and William Smith clearly distinguish this Thomas Graves from the family of John Graves4.
DEED BOOK E 1751-1761
April 4, 1758. Thomas x Graves and Eleanor, his wife, of Spts. Co., to John Waggener of sd. County. £30 curr. 120 a. in St. Geo. Par., Spts. Co., whereon sd. Graves lives, bounded by lands of Beverley Stanard, John Farish, Wm. Johnston and the late Samuel More. Witnesses, Lark. Chew, Robert Goodloe, Joseph Herndon. April 5, 1758.
The identity of this Thomas Graves is unknown. A careful review of the two main GFA genealogies (GFA 169 and 270) being scrutinized in this analysis did not disclose any Thomas Graves married to an Eleanor. LDS Family History records do offer listings for Thomas Graves and wife, Eleanor, but these records all seem to be muddled as regards ancestral connections. Some of these LDS records suggest the same Thomas Graves2, son of John Graves Sr.1, but it is known with some certainty that Thomas Graves2 was not married to a woman named Eleanor. Also, attempts to connect this Thomas Graves with reported neighbors of Beverley Stanard, John Farish, William Johnston and Samuel More were unsuccessful. It is unlikely that this was Thomas Graves3, son of John Graves2 Jr., as that Thomas Graves married a woman named Elizabeth [Sims?] around 1746 and is believed to have been living in Orange County in 1758. With Joseph Herndon having been a witness is strong indication that this Thomas Graves was affiliated with the John Graves Sr.1 lineage, as there were probable intermarriages between this Graves family and the Herndon family. Moreover, members of the Graves descendents and Herndons lived in close proximity to one another. Possible son of Joseph Graves2.
DEED BOOK E 1751-1761
Nov. 7, 1758. Thomas McNeil of St. Geo. Par., Spts. Co., to Thomas Graves, junr., of Par. and Co. afsd. £14 curr. 100 a. in Par. and Co. afsd. Witnesses, John Semple, Wm. Waller, W. Wood. Dec. 5, 1758.
There is little doubt that this was Thomas Graves Jr.3, son of Thomas Graves Sr.2. The patent could not be located for Thomas McNeil, so presumably he had purchased this tract. By virtue of the witness by William Waller, it is presumed to have been in the general vicinity of his other family members near East Northeast Branch. The fact that he continued to use the appellation of "Jr." also distinguishes him from the Thomas Graves in Item No. 18, above.
DEED BOOK E 1751-1761
[p.216]Jany. 25, 1760. Thomas x Graves of Spts. Co. and Ann, his wife, to John Lewis of same Co., Attorney-at-Law. £35 curr. 200 a. in Spts. Co. Z. Lewis, junr., Charles Lewis, Benja. Lewis. Augt. 4, 1760.
This record was almost certainly for Thomas Graves2 and his wife, Ann Davenport. The identity of John Lewis is uncertain, but may have been John Zachary Lewis, who married Mary Waller, daughter of Col. John Waller. It is probable that Zachary Lewis Jr., Charles Lewis and Benjamin Lewis were the sons of John Zachary Lewis and Mary Waller. This 200 acre tract was undoubtedly one of the tracts procured by Thomas Graves near his home between Northanna River and Ta River.
DEED BOOK E 1751-1761
April 6, 1761. Martin Vaughan of Caroline Co. and Elinor, his wife, to John Bullock of Spts. Co. £35 curr. 233 a. in Spts. Co., part of a tract purchased by Cornelius Vaughan, Decd., of John Foster, and by the sd. Foster conveyed to Cornelius and the sd. Martin Vaughan, sons of Cornelius Vaughan, Decd., as by Deed, June 5, 1750. Edwd. Herndon, John Holloday, Rice Graves.
Rice Graves3 was son of Thomas Graves2 and Ann Davenport. Edward Herndon may have been an in-law of Rice Graves, by way of Rice’s brother, John Graves, who first married a Herndon. John Foster, the original patentee probably was the same John Foster who witnessed the purchase of 170 acres by Thomas Graves2 from Lawrence Franklyn on 3Feb1725.
DEED BOOK F 1761-1766
June 26, 1762. John Graves and Susannah, his wife, of Spts. Co., to John Page of same Co. £30 curr. 100 a. in St. Geo. Par., Spts. Co., on branches of N. fork of South River, conveyed to Mark Whealer by Henry Goodloe, Gent. (since decd.), as by Deeds, June 3, 1735, etc. Henry Good-loe, Wm. Marsh, George Goodloe, Benj. Woodroof, W. Hodgson, Robt. Goodloe, George Durrett. Septr. 6, 1762.
The identity of this John Graves is unknown. A search of GFA Genealogies 169 and 270 failed to disclose any John Graves married to a Susannah, who would have been living in Spotsylvania in 1762. LDS records suggest the existence of a John Graves married to a Susannah Holliday [Holladay] in Spotsylvania, but no one seems to know anything about his ancestry, or when he may have died. Being on branches of the North Fork of the South River places this tract near the headwaters of the Ta River. NOTE: Robert Goodloe witnessed the deed in Item 18., above in which an unknown Thomas Graves and Eleanor, his wife, sold 120 acres to John Waggener. Now we have several Goodloes, including Robert Goodloe listed as adjacent landowners in this purchase of 100 acres by an unknown John Graves and wife, Susannah. Also listed in this deed were Benjamin Woodroof, presumed son of George Woodroof, and George Durrett (there were intermarriages between Goodloe daughters and Durrett sons).
Given the association in common with Robert Goodloe between these two unknown Graves men, it occurs to the authors that this unknown John Graves and unknown Thomas Graves were likely brothers. Having eliminated all other possibilities for known ancestors, it seems probable that these unknown Graves men were sons of the elusive Joseph Graves2, brother of Thomas Graves2 and John Graves Jr.2, who settled in Surry County, N.C. around 1770.
DEED BOOK F 1761-1766
Octr. 31, 1761. John x Graves, Senr., and Frances, his wife, of St. Geo. Par., Spts. Co., to John Graves, junr., of St. Martin's Par., Louisa Co. £50 curr. 238 a. in St. Geo. Par., Spts. Co. Fras. Meriwether, Jos. Graves, Wm. x Davis, James Mackgehee. June 7, 1762.
This is John Graves2 [aka John Graves Jr.] son of John Graves Sr.1, and brother of Thomas Graves2. His wife’s surname is unknown. The purchaser, John Graves Jr.3 is presumed to be the son of John Graves2 and Frances. John Graves Jr.3 married Mary McGehee, daughter of William McGehee and Mary Carr. The James McGehee who witnessed this deed is believed to be a son of William McGehee and Mary Carr. Joseph Graves3 is believed to have been another son of John Graves2 and Frances, and the nephew of Thomas Graves2, whom he named as an Executor of his LWT.
DEED BOOK F 1761-1766
[p.227]June 2, 1762. John x Graves, Senr., of Spts. Co., and Frances, his wife, to Joseph Graves of same Co. £10 curr. 100 a. in Spts. Co. Wm. Kim-brow, John Graves, junr.; Wm. Wright. June 7, 1762.
John Graves2 sold 100 acres to his son, Joseph Graves3. Witnessed by another son, John Graves Jr.3.
DEED BOOK F 1761-1766
May 31, 1765. John x Graves of Spts. Co. to his son, Joseph Graves. Deed of Gift. "Sd. Joseph's wife, Franky, daughter of John Coleman, Decd.," etc. 200 a. whereon sd. John now lives; slaves, stocks, etc., etc., sd. tract of land purchased by sd. John of Thomas Gambrill and Ann, his wife, as by deeds, May 24, 1729, etc. "Sd. John Graves and Frances, his wife, during their lives," etc. Witnesses, J. Lewis, Nice Coleman, Wm. Wigglesworth, Samuel Coleman. June 5, 1765.
John Graves2 appears to be wrapping up the affairs of his estate with this gift deed to his son, Joseph Graves3, who married Francis Coleman. Note that this was the same tract that John Graves2 procured from Thomas Gambrill by swapping for his 100 acres of Cohoke sunken ground. Also note references to J. [John] Lewis [probable son of John Zachary Lewis], and to William Wigglesworth, both families were neighbors of Thomas Graves2 and John Graves2.
DEED BOOK F 1761-1766
June 10, 1766. John Waller, Clerk of Spts. Co., Gent., to Jno. Mitchell, Hugh Lenox and Wm. Scott, Merchts. and partners, of Fredksbg. Whereas, sd. Scott on behalf of himself and partners became bound, etc., to Thos. Graves of Spts. Co. in sum of £357 3s. 5d. Curr. as security for sd. Waller, for which sd. Graves has entered suit agst. sd. Waller and Scott and his partners, and the sd. Scott & Co. being liable for the sd. debt, and whereas sd. Waller is indebted to the sd. Scott & Co. in the sum of £310 10s. 1d., and for advancing the sd. Waller £200 at or before the sealing of these presents to meet debts, vizt., John Stewart of Fredksbg., Mercht., £120; to the Executors of Wm. Marshall's Estate, £50; and the remaining £30 to John Semple, surviving partner of Robt. Baylor, Gent., Decd., in consequence of the preceeding the sd. Waller deeds to sd. Scott & Co. every fee and benefit to be gained by him, the sd. Waller as Clerk of Spts. Co., etc., for space of five years, if not exceeding £200 with interest from date, etc., balance to be applied to debt due the sd. Mitchell, etc., by the sd. Waller, etc., etc. Witnesses, O. Towles, junr., Richard Johnson, Jn. Bevy. Roy, W. Wood. Septr. 1, 1766.
This undoubtedly was Thomas Graves2 involving a bond for £357 3s 5d. The size of this transaction provides a hint of the worth of Thomas Graves2 estate. He is known to have accumulated several more tracts of land in the neighboring counties of Orange and Louisa during his later years.
DEED BOOK F 1761-1766
Septr. 4, 1766. John x Graves, Senr., of St. Geo. Par., Spts. Co., to his son, John Graves, junr., of Par. and Co. afsd. Deed of Gift. Slaves. Witnesses, O. Towles, jr., Seth Cason, Jonathan Carpenter. Octr. 6, 1766.
This was undoubtedly John Graves2 [aka John Graves Jr.], and he appears to be making further distribution of his estate to his heirs, this time to his son, John Graves Jr.3. There was no mention of John's wife, Frances, in either of these gift deeds to his sons, suggesting that she may have been dead by May1765.
DEED BOOK F 1761-1766
Octr. 4, 1766. Thomas Graves of Culpeper Co. and Sarah, his wife; John Graves and Ann, his wife, of sd. County; Isaac Graves and Mildred, his wife, of Orange Co., to George Humphreys of Spts. Co. £12 curr. 120 a. in Spts. Co. Witnesses, Jno. Chiles, Saml. Bullock, Jos. Dicken, Forest Webb. Nov. 3, 1766.
This record is clearly for the children of John Graves4 of Gloucester.
DEED BOOK F 1761-1766
Octr. 3, 1766. Thos. Graves of Culpeper Co. and Sarah, his wife; John Graves and Ann, his wife, of sd. Co., and Isaac Graves and Mildred, his wife, of Orange Co., to John Chiles of Spts. Co. £13 curr. 200 a. in Spts. Co. devised the sd. Thos., John and Isaac Graves by their father, John Graves, Decd. Witnesses, James Chiles, George Humphries, Samuel Bullock, Joseph Dicken. Nov. 3, 1766.
Ditto Item 27, above.
DEED BOOK F 1761-1766
Octr. 3, 1766. Thos., John and Isaac Graves, and their wives, of Spts. Co. to Samuel Bullock of Co. afsd. £5 10s. curr. 136 a. in Spts. Co. John Chiles, George Humphries, Forest Webb, Joseph Dicken. Nov. 3, 1766.
WILL BOOK D 1761-1772
GRAVES, THOMAS, d. Oct. 17, 1767. Executors Bond dated June 6, 1768. Wit. Francis Meriwether; James Smith; John Graves Junr., James Smith, Doctor; William Mackgehee. Ex. son, Thomas Graves; son-in-law, William Pettus; nephew Joseph Graves. Leg. wife, Ann Graves, land whereon I now live in Spotsylvania Co., and one-third profits issuing from my mill, and after her death to all my surviving children or their heirs. (Page 318)”
This clearly is the LWT of Thomas Graves2, father-in-law of Valentine Bostick. Following is a transcript of this LWT created by the authors from a copy of a transcript of the original document:
Š In the name of God, amen. I Thomas Graves of Spotsylvania County, through the abundant mercy and goodness of God, though weak in body, yet of a sound and perfect understanding and memory do make, ordain and constitute this my last will and testament as followeth: Imprimitus, I command myself and all my whole estate to the mercy and protection of almighty God, being fully persuaded of his holy spirit through the death and passion of Jesus Christ to obtain full pardon and remission of all my sins and to inherit everlasting life to which the holy trinity, one Eternal Diety be all honour and glory forever, amen. I will and ordain that the funeral of my body be only such as shall be seen a Christian at the discretion of my Executors herein after named and also all such worldly estates as it hath pleased Almighty God to bestow on me. I give and devise of bequeath the same as followeth.
Item. I lend to my loving wife, Ann Graves for and during her natural life, two negro slaves, viz. Daniel and Margery. I also lend to her all my tract of land whereon I now live in Spotsylvania County, likewise one third part of the profits arising from my mill, she bearing one third part towards repairing the said mill. I also lend to my said will [wife] one third part of my stocks of cattle, horses, hogs, etc. I also lend to my said wife all my household and kitchen furniture during her natural life. And my will and desire is that my said wife's death what I have here lent her be equally divided amongst all my then surviving children, or heirs of such as shall be dead.
Item. As I have already given part of my estate to some of my children and nothing to some of the rest, my will and desire is that those that have not received any, first be made equal with those or as near as possible with those that have received. Then my will and desire is that the remainder of my estate both real and personal be it of what nature so ever or wheresoever it is be equally divided amongst all my surviving children, or amongst the heirs of such as shall be dead, to them and their heirs forever.
And, I make, ordain, constitute and appoint my son, Thomas Graves, my son-in-law, William Pettis, and my nephew, Joseph Graves, Excutors of this my last will and testament. Revoking all other wills and testaments by me heretofore made. In Witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand seal the seventh day of October, one thousand seven hundred and sixty seven (1767)
Signed, Sealed, Published and Declared by the above named Thomas Graves for and as his last will and testament in presence of us and in his presence we subscribed our names as witness:
Francis Merriwether, James Smith, John Graves Jr., James Smith, Doctor, and William MacGehee.
John Graves Jr., who witnessed the LWT, is believed to have been John Graves Jr.3, son of Thomas Graves2' brother, John Graves2 and brother of Joesph Graves3.
WILL BOOK D
£500 William Davenport, guard. to William Graves, orph. of Jonathan Graves, with John Lewis, sec. Nov. 7, 1768.
William Davenport was grandson of Davis Davenport, father of Ann Davenport, 2nd wife of Thomas Graves2. Jonathan Graves is believed to have been a son of Thomas Graves2 and Ann Davenport, who likely married a Davenport, probably a 1st cousin and granddaughter of Davis Davenport. Jonathan Graves was the youngest son of Thomas Graves2, and apparently he died young, leaving an orphan son named William Graves.
This John Graves3 is believed to have been the eldest son of Thomas Graves2 by his first wife, believed to have been Mary Perkins. Although Thomas Graves2 left a LWT in 1767, it would appear that it still had not been fully probated in 1782. William Pettis, son-in-law of Thomas Graves2 was one of three executors named in that LWT. It would appear from this indenture that there had been found a legal flaw in this LWT, which prevented the Executors from disposing of Thomas Graves2' real property. By the laws of primogeniture, John Graves3 held inheritance rights to this property (absent a LWT to the contrary), and was conveying that right (title) to William Pettis on 399 acres from his father's estate, in order that that land might be liquidated and proceeds distributed to the heirs set forth in the LWT. This indenture was witnessed by Joseph Graves (presumed nephew of Thomas Graves2), John Graves, William Graves Jr., John Arnold, and John W. Puttus, some of whom may have represented heirs to the estate of Thomas Graves2.
WILL BOOK E 1772-1798
GRAVES, JOSEPH, Spotsylvania Co., d. May 12, 1785, Executors Bond dated Dec. 5, 1786. Wit. Edward Cason, Jr. James Graves, Spencer Coleman. Ex. wife Frankey Graves; son-in-law James C. Goodwin; my wife's brother Hawes Coleman; my sons John C. and Joseph, when they come of age. Leg. daughter Nancy Goodwin; wife Frankey Graves; son John C. Graves, half the land I own in Louisa; son Joseph, when he comes of age, remainder of land in Louisa; sons Benjamin, George, Hawes, and the one my wife is now with child, if a son, land in Spotsylvania Co. to be divided among. Mentions property to be divided amongst all my daughters, except Nancy Goodwin. (Page 798)”
This was the LWT of Joseph Graves3, son of John Graves2.
This concludes the presentation and analysis of records pertaining to the Graves families found in Spotsylvania County during the lifetime of Thomas Graves2. From this analysis it has been shown that Thomas Graves2 probably was the person shown on the 1704 Quit Rents with 100 acres in King William County, and probably was born before 1683. It is probable that that 100 acre tract was situated near the Northanna River and East Northeast Branch in an area that ultimately became part of Spotsylvania County after its formationin 1721. It is further believed that Thomas Graves continued to live in that same area near Arnold's Run until his death in 1767. Throughout his life Thomas Graves2 continued to add to his holdings in this area between East Northeast Branch and the Ta River, as well as several tracts of land in the adjacent counties of Louisa and Orange. In the various records associated with Thomas Graves2 were the names of neighbors and nearest relations including: Arnold, Davenport, Pettis, Waller, Smith, Woodroof, Coleman, and Holladay. He accumlated a substantial estate during his life, as evidenced by the final payout from his estate to fifteen separate legatees a sum of almost ₤200 each.
Because of a technical weakness in his LWT, the final administration did not occur until 1802. The authors have attempted to obtain a copy of the final administraction papers on Thomas Graves estate from the Spotsylvania County Court records, but were unsuccessful. Reason being that the County will only retrieve records covered under the index created by Crozier, which ends at the year 1800. Based on the writing of Mrs. P. W. Hiden, the authors have reason to believe that these administration papers still exist in the Spotsylvania County archives, but will require an onsite search, a task not within the authors power to accomplish. One item reported by Mrs. Hiden is of particular interest to this research, that being Mrs. Hiden's statement that a John Bostick signed for the final estate settlement on behalf of an heir named Mary (Campbell).
The authors have good reason to believe that this heir was a daughter named Mary Graves, who married Valentine Bostick. Just where the name of (Campbell) originates is not clear. There is one possible explanation that occurs to the authors, namely that Mary (Campbell) may have been the eldest daughter of Valentine Bostick and Mary Graves, who had married a gentleman named Campbell. There was a family of Campbells living in Onslow County North Carolina during the 1750's to the 1780's, into which a daughter of Valentine and Mary may have intermarried. It was in Onslow County that Valentine and Mary lived from about 1745 until their deaths. Not knowning the source of the surname of (Campbell) [as Mrs. Hiden showed it, in parenthsis], it also occurs to the authors that this name was bogus. The John Bostick, who signed the estate papers on behalf of Mary (Campbell), with a certainty was an older son of Valentine and Mary, who was living in Richland County, South Carolina in 1802. There was another son, Charles Bostick, living in Duplin County, North Carolina, who, being the eldest son, might have been the one to travel to Spotsylvania to sign these papers, but may have been otherwise prevented from making that journey.
Regardless, the authors believe they have established beyond a reasonable doubt that the Mary Graves who married Valentine Bostick, was the daughter identified as being represented in her father's estate papers as Mary (Campbell). It also seems probable that Mary Graves was the elder daughter identified as an additional unnamed child from the marriage of Thomas Graves with his first wife, Mary Perkins. This belief is supported by the knowledge that Mary Graves and Valentine Bostick were likely married around 1739, based on deed records from Goochland County. Such marriage date would suggest Mary's birth year having been 1718 or earlier, placing her birth before Thomas Graves' marriage to his second wife, Ann Davenport.
From the outset of this research it has always troubled the authors how it was that Valentine Bostick may have met his wife, Mary Graves. It is known from various records that Valentine and his father, Charles Bostick, had consistently reported their place of residence between 1715 and 1745 as having been in New Kent, and later in Hanover County. Now, having completed this analysis of the life of Thomas Graves2, it has become apparent that Valentine Bostick and his father, Charles Bostick, may have lived for many years across the Pamunkey/Northanna River in Hanover County from the home of Thomas Graves. From a study of the records of the Davenports, Carrs, McGehhees, Arnolds, etal. it is clear that families living in this area held land ownership on both side of the river. For example, Martin Davenport lived for many years in Hanover County, but owned and operated Davenport's Ordinary near Arnold's Run in Spotsylvania County. In fact, the 1863 map shows Davenport's Bridge across the Northanna River near the confluence of Arnold's Run. From this it became obvious that, although living in separate counties, the Graves and Bosticks were separated only by a river crossing, and probably less than fifteen miles distance.
, Bostic, Jenkins and Others, Paul E. Bostic, Clinton, TN., 1993, p. 3. (Orange County Virginia, Deed Book 7, pp. 77-82.)
 King William County Records, Book 1, 1702-1707, p. 195. [Virginia Colonial Abstracts, Volume 12, Beverley Fleet, p. 292.]
 Claiborne of Virginia: Descendants of Colonel William Claiborne, The First Eight Generations, Compiled by John Frederick Dorman in Collaboration with Claiborne T. Smith, Jr., 1995.
 Cavaliers and Pioneers, Patent Book 4, pp. 358 and 359, Nell Marion Nugent.
 Virginia Colonial Records, 1600’s-1700’s, Virginia Colonial Abstracts, Volume II, King and Queen County, Records Concerning 18th Century Persons, 4th Collection, p. 294.
 Excerpted from Claiborne of Virginia: Descendants of Colonel William Claiborne, The First Eight Generations, opcit.
 Virginia Colonial Records, 1600’s-1700’s, Virginia Colonial Abstracts, Volume I, Accomack County, 1632-1637, pp 11-14, Beverley Fleet.
 Virginia Colonial Records, 1600’s-1700’s, Cavaliers and Pioneers, Patent Book 1, Part I, Beverley Fleet, p. 25.
 Virginia Colonial Records, 1600’s-1700’s, Cavaliers and Pioneers, Patent Book 1, Part II, Beverley Fleet, p. 207.
 The Flowering of the Maryland Palatinate, Harry Wright Newman, 1961, p. 222.
 King William County Deed Book 1, p. 342.
 Virginia Colonial Records, 1600’s-1700’s, Virginia Colonial Abstracts, Volume II, King and Queen County, Records Concerning 18th Century Persons, 4th Edition, p. 292, Beverley Fleet.
 Virginia Immigrants and Adventurers, 1607-1635: a Biographical Dictionary, Martha W. McCartney, 2007, pp. 732-733.
 Ibid., pp. 237 and 238.
 Virginia Colonial Records, 1600’s-1700’s, Virginia Colonial Abstracts, Volume II, King and Queen County, Records Concerning 18th Century Persons, 7th Collection, Beverley Fleet, p. 426.
 Old New Kent County [Virginia]: Some Account of the Planters ..., Volume 1, Malcolm Hart Harris, MD, 2006, pp. 293-295.
 Ibid., p. 35
 King and Queen County, Virginia, Rev. Alfred Bagby, A.B., D.D., 1908, p. 45.
 Hening, William Waller, 1819 The Statutes at Large; Being A Collection Of All the Laws Of Virginia, From The First Session Of the Legislature In The Year 1619. Volume VI. Franklin Press, Richmond, Virginia.
 Executive Journals of the Council of Virginia, Volume II, p. 235.
 King and Queen County, Virginia, Rev. Alfred Bagby, A.B., D.D., 1908, p. 45.
 Cavaliers and Pioneers, Volume II, p. 262.
 Ibid., p. 278.
 Cavaliers and Pioneers, Volume III, p. 17.
 Cavaliers and Pioneers, Volume I, Patent Book No. 2, p. 211.
 Ibid., p. 216.
 Old New Kent County, Some Accounts of the Planters, Plantations and Places in King and Queen County, Malcolm Hart Harris, M.d., 1977, p. 283-284.
 Virginia Colonial Records, 1600's-1700's, Cavaliers and Pioneers, Patent Book No. 4, Genealogical Publishing CDROM, p. 369.
 Ibid., Patent Book 3, p. 307.
 ‑Last Will and Testament, Richard Croshawe, 26Apr1631, Virginia Colonial Records, 1600’s-1700’s, Virginia Gleaning in England, pp. 607-610, Beverley Fleet.
 Cavaliers and Pioneers, Patent Book 5, p. 506.
 The Graves Family of York County, William and Mary Quarterly, Mrs. P. W. Hiden, p. 774.
 Virginia Colonial Records, 1600’s-1700’s, Virginia Colonial Abstracts, Volume II, King and Queen County, Records Concerning 18th Century Persons, 4th Collection, p. 294.
 Genealogies of Virginia Families from Tyler's Quarterly, Genealogical Publishing Company, 1997, CDROM, The Graves Family of Spotsylvania County, p. 4
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fee_tail, accessed January 25, 2011.
 Cavaliers and Pioneers, Vol. 3, Nugent, p. 126.
 Ibid., p. 30.
 Ibid., p. 68.
 Ibid., p. 68.
 Ibid., p. 70
 Genealogy of the Spotswood Family in Scotland and Virginia, Charles Campbell, 1868, pp. 31-41.
 Cavaliers and Pioneers, Book 11, Nugent, p 9.
 The Graves Family of Essex County, Mrs. P. W. Hiden, William & Mary Quarterly.
 Spotsylvania County Road Orders 1722-1734, Nathaniel Mason Pawlett, 1985, rev. 2004, p. 117.
 http://fredmarkers.umwblogs.org/2008/03/25/fredericksville-furnace/, accessed January 27, 2011.
 http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~usgenweb/special/tafq/tafq3.htm, accessed January 27, 2011.