Rev. 31 Oct. 2005, Gen. 742







Richard Graves (1) may have been born about 1810.  He married Mary Moore on 15 Oct. 1838 in Cottenham, Cambridgeshire, England.  Mary was a daughter of William Moore who was a farmer.  Richard was a gardener.  By the time their daughter Anne was 14 years old (1853), her father had died and her mother Mary had married Benjamin Hart.  They emigrated to Australia aboard the “Meteor”, arriving 3 July 1853.  Richard and Mary Graves were married on 15 October 1838 in Cottenham.  (R‑1, R‑2)

Children – Graves

+2.  Ann Graves, b. 25 Dec. 1838, m. William Trustum, 9 Sept. 1856, d. 24 Sept. 1916.






Ann (or Anne) Graves (2) was born 25 Dec. 1838 in Cottenham, Cambridgeshire, England, and died 24 Sept. 1916 in Woodburn, NSW, Australia.  She married William Trustum, son of John Trustum and Mary Palmer, on 9 Sept. 1856 in Pyre, Shoalhaven River, NSW, Australia, in the presence of Richard and Harriet Pratt.  William was 27 years old and Ann 17.  They spent the next ten years at Shoalhaven where they engaged in farming.  He was born 12 April 1829 in Martock, Somersetshire, England, and died 8 Dec. 1916 in Woodburn, Australia.  Their first 6 children were born in Shoalhaven, NSW, the next 2 in Woodburn, NSW, the next in Tuckenbill Creek, South Woodburn, and the last 3 in Woodburn.

William and Ann Trustum were two of the earliest pioneers of the Woodburn district.  William's father, John, was a leather dresser.  William sailed for Australia when he was 19 years old.  A document dated 24 Nov. 1848 has come to light which stated that William Trustum had to forward 2 pounds for his free passage to Australia and that the money had to be paid in advance before an embarkation order could be issued.  Failure to pay the fee meant he would have to forfeit the trip.  When William arrived in Australia he settled on the Shoalhaven River on the South Coast of New South Wales.  It was in this area that William was to meet his wife Ann.

A copy of Ann Graves' Baptismal certificate shows she was christened on 25 Jan. 1842.  The certificate was given to Ann when she was fifteen years old just prior to her departure for Australia along with her widowed mother, Mary.  The certificate was given to her by Reverend Samuel Banks on 14/3/1853.  They were also presented with a Bible which is still in the possession of Mrs Doris Pedrini (nee Trustum).  After arriving in Australia in 1853 they settled on the Shoalhaven River.  Ann's mother, Mary Graves, stayed on at Shoalhaven and re-married to William Hart on 16 Dec. 1884.  Mary died on 3 Jan. 1892 at the age of 80 years.  There are descendants of the Hart family living in the Woodburn area.  William Hart died on 10 July 1908.

The children born while they lived there were Sarah, 29 January 1857, Eliza, 25 September 1858, Mary Ann, 28 January 1861, Jane, 13 March 1864, John Richard, 20 December 1865

During 1866 William Trustum decided to move north to the Richmond river.  He came on the "Susannah Cuthbert" and landed at Iluka.  Using a native guide, William cut a track through to Rocky Mouth Creek (sometimes called Tuckombil Creek).  They camped just south of Woodburn.  They searched for a suitable piece of land in the vicinity of their camp.  He eventually settled on the land he was camped on and remained there his entire life.  William built a slab hut with a shingle roof and then sent for his wife Ann and their children.  They arrived at Ballina aboard the "Wallaby" and came by boat up the river to Woodburn where they were met by William.  The only other white family on the lower Richmond were the Cravigans.  Aborigines gave Woodburn the name "Maniworkan".  Ann saved some orange seeds from oranges she had eaten on the trip up.  She planted them on their selection.  There were forty all told.  That was how the place came to be called "Orange Grove".  People would walk out from Woodburn to purchase oranges at threepence a dozen.  Ann also sold oranges to Jack Rosolen who was the first storekeeper in Evans Head.

The children born to William and Ann in Woodburn were Isabella Judith, 18 July 1868, William Walter, 7 March 1871, Avis Bertha, 15 January 1874, Agnes Emily, 23 November 1876, Colin Graves, 18 June 1879, Hilda Maud, 29 April 1882.

The children attended school in Woodburn.  Sarah and Eliza were among the first children enrolled at the Woodburn School.  The school opened in 1871 and by the end of that year the enrolment had risen to sixteen with an average attendance of eleven.  The numbers rose steadily from then on.  Woodburn school was a rough slab structure consisting of a schoolroom measuring twenty-four feet by sixteen feet.  The children had to walk about a mile to school.

Ann made her own soap.  It consisted of one kerosene tin of water, thirteen pounds of fat, a couple of pounds of caustic soda and some borax.

William used to take his milk to the factory just north of the town and across the river. They used a Mylot Separator at the factory.  When the cream had been separated, the milk was given back to William to take home to feed the pigs and calves.

Over the years prices have varied greatly and so has the value of money.  Set out below are prices for goods around the 1860's.

Tea per lb. 2/6 (25c)            Milk per quart  6d (5c)
Bread per loaf 9d (8c)          Wheat per bushel 12/- ($1.20)
Butter per lb. 2/- (20c)         Maize per bushel 13/- ($1.30)
Cheese per lb. 1/- (10c)        Sugar per lb. 9d (8c)
Eggs per dozen  2/- (20c)


William and Ann always kept their own bees and extracted their honey.  Often when Ann was out looking for wild bee hives, the tribal Aborigines would raid the house for food.  Ann always kept a shotgun in the house to frighten them off.

At one time William and his son Colin were out in the bush paddock.  They arrived at their camp to find the hut full of Aborigines.  They would not move out and were all sitting around the fire.  William moved in, shovelled up a shovel full of hot coals and threw the the hot coals above their heads.  They soon scattered.

Ann always made cheese on the property.  Trees were cut down and only left a stump into which they cut a wedge.  The cheese was put into the stump and a pole was pushed down to press the cheese.

Ann also served as midwife on the lower Richmond for many years.  She used to travel by horse, riding side saddle.  She would often go as far as New Italy.

The death of Ann on 24 Sept. 1916, at the age of 78 years, marked the passing of yet another pioneer woman who played a noble and self-sacrificing part in the development of the Richmond Valley.  William died on 8 Dec. 1916, aged 86 years.  This highly respected man who came to the Richmond some 50 years before and selected his land, reared eleven sons and daughters and always had time to help his fellow man, has left a very strong and high tradition of which all descendants can be justly proud.

Apparently, Ann had to prove that she could have children before William would marry her.  She was of no use to him unless she could bear children to work the farm.  When she was pregnant with Sarah, they were married.  (R‑1)

Children – Trustum

  3.   Sarah Trustum, b. 29 Jan. 1857, d. 10 March 1877 (Woodburn, NSW, Australia).

  4.   Eliza Trustum, b. 25 Sept. 1858, m. Colin McLaren, 1881 (Lismore, NSW, Australia), d. 13 Sept. 1940 (Ballina, NSW, Australia).  He was b. 22 Dec. 1852 in Glasgow, Scotland.

  5.   Mary Ann Trustum, b. 28 Jan. 1861, m. Peter M. Lason, 1879 (Lismore, NSW, Australia).

  6.   John Trustum, b. 1862, d. 1862 (Shoalhaven, NSW, Australia).

  7.   Jane Trustum, b. 13 March 1864, m. Alfred J. Buckland, 1887 (Lismore, NSW, Australia).

  8.   John Richard Trustum, b. 20 Dec. 1865, m. Elizabeth Smith, 1897 (Casino, NSW, Australia), d. 18 Jan. 1951 (Woodburn, NSW).  She d. 21 April 1958 in Woodburn, NSW, Australia.

  9.   Isabella Judith Trustum, b. 18 July 1868, m. William R. Elliott, 1889 (Lismore, NSW).

  10.  William Walter Trustum, b. 7 March 1871, m. Florence Mary Chapman, 1899 (Lismore, NSW), d. 12 Jan. 1956 (Woodburn, NSW).  She d. 25 Dec. 1940 in Woodburn, NSW.

  11.  Avis Bertha Trustum, b. 15 Jan. 1874, d. 15 Aug. 1877 (Woodburn, NSW).

  12.  Agnes Emily Trustum, b. 23 Nov. 1876, m. Donald McPhee, 1898 (Casino, NSW, Australia).

  13.  Colin Greaves Trustum, b. 18 June 1879, m. Margaret Bale, 1903 (Casino, NSW), d. 14 Aug. 1962 (Casino, NSW).

+14.  Hilda Maud Trustum, b. 29 April 1882, m. Arthur Ernest Betterridge, 27 March 1907, d. 7 Dec. 1973.






Hilda Maud Trustum (14) was born 29 April 1882 in Woodburn, NSW, Australia, died 7 Dec. 1973 in Grafton, NSW, Australia, and was buried in C of E Cem., Woodburn.  She married Arthur Ernest Betterridge, son of James Henry Edward Betterridge and Emma Ware, on 27 March 1907 in South Woodburn, NSW.  He was born 20 Feb. 1875 in Woodburn, NSW, died 22 March 1964, and was buried 24 March 1964 in C of E Cem., Woodburn.  (R‑1)

Children – Betterridge

  15.  Arthur William Betterridge, b. 15 March 1908 (Sawpit Creek, South Woodburn, NSW), d. 27 Feb. 1992 (Coraki Hospital, Lismore/Woodburn, NSW).

  16.  Dulcie (“Dell”) Lillian Betterridge, b. 29 Oct. 1909 (Woodburn, NSW), d. 27 July 1994 (Coraki Hospital, Lismore/Woodburn, NSW).

  17.  child

  18.  child

  19.  son, m. ‑‑‑‑‑‑ Grissell (dau. of George James Grissell and Maud ‑‑‑‑‑‑).  5 children.

  20.  son, m(1) ‑‑‑‑‑‑ Foster, m(2) ‑‑‑‑‑‑ Dhu (dau. of George Page-Dhu and Elizabeth Olivera).  2 children by each marriage.

  21.  daughter, m. ‑‑‑‑‑‑ Billett.  3 children.

  22.  daughter, m. ‑‑‑‑‑‑ McPherson (son of Duncan McPherson and Jane (“Jinny”) Firth).  4 children.

  23.  daughter, m. ‑‑‑‑‑‑ McCann.


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